- Class Number 7451
- Term Code 2960
- Class Info
- Unit Value 6 units
- Mode of Delivery In Person
- Prof Hrvoje Tkalcic
- Prof Hrvoje Tkalcic
- Prof Louis-Noel Moresi
- Class Dates
- Class Start Date 22/07/2019
- Class End Date 25/10/2019
- Census Date 31/08/2019
- Last Date to Enrol 29/07/2019
The course is an introduction to physics of the solid Earth intended for students with substantial background in physics and mathematics including calculus. The course will provide an overview of the structure and evolution of the Earth as a dynamic planet within our solar system. Physical principles will be applied to the following topics: theory of elasticity and elastic wave propagation; modern global seismology as a probe of the Earth's internal structure; earthquakes and the description of seismic sources; a simple but fundamental theory of thermal convection; the distinctive rheological behaviour of the upper mantle and its top layer, controlled by significant changes in the mechanical properties of the material, will then be explored to arrive at a comprehensive description of what forces drive and resist global plate motions.Honours Pathway Option
Students taking the HP advanced option will undertake an individual project on a topic of interest from the course syllabus. Such project shall develop in consultation with the course lecturers, and may be in the form of a reading project or a laboratory/numerical experiment accompanied by a final report. The assessment of the project will be agreed upon and undertaken in a manner appropriate to the project itself (e.g. a written report or essay, a short talk etc.). Students taking the HP option may elect to substitute their project mark either with up to two (out of four) individual assignments or with one of the experiments and accompanying report normally undertaken during the course (this amounts to a total of 10-20% of the final grade). The assessment weight towards the exam will remain the same.
Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
1. Discuss the theoretical basis for modern global seismology and employ methods based on such theory to understand earthquake phenomena and the seismological probing of earth structure.
2. Explain the governing dynamics of mantle and lithosphere, and use such understanding to make reliable estimates of the forces controlling plate motions and their temporal changes.
In both modules, the lectures refer to selected groundbreaking research results of the past few years. Usually, this is a selection of results developed by the Seismology & Mathematical Geophysics group at ANU, and/or other significant recent results within the intellectual context of the course. A significant element of research-led teaching occurs through students' oral presentations of the selected research papers where we engage in group discussions and explore how the selected papers utilize and address topics from the course curriculum. In module 2, the computer labs are based on research codes that can be applied to relatively simple problems that we encounter in the course.
Additional Course Costs
Examination Material or equipment
180 min. Answer five of the six questions. All questions will. be of equal value. All questions to be completed in the script book provided. A calculator is allowed.
1) The Solid Earth - Second Edition: An introduction to Global Geophysics
by C. M. R. Fowler (Chapters 4 & 8; Appendix 1-10) - Cambridge Univ. Press (QC806.F625)
2) The Earth’s Inner Core
by H. Tkalcic (Chapters 2-4, 6, Appendix A-D) - Cambridge University Press
3) Dynamic Earth, Cambridge University Press (QE509.4 .D38 1999)
by Davies, G. F. (1999)
4) Turcotte, Donald, and Gerald Schubert. Geodynamics. Cambridge university press, 2002 (QE501 .T83 2002)
(More recent editions are fine too)
•Modern Global Seismology (intermediate level)
by T. Lay and Wallace (QE534.2M62)
•Introduction to Seismology, Cambridge University Press - available online as a pdf
by Shearer, P.M. (QE534.2 .S455 1999)
•Fundamentals of Geophysics
by W. Lowrie (Chapters 1 & 3) - Cambridge University Press (QC.806.L67)
Students will be given feedback during review sessions and via email. Students are welcome to drop in during office hours.
ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.
|Week/Session||Summary of Activities||Assessment|
|1||Module 1/ Week 1 1/1 Introduction 1/2 Inverse theory; linearized methods 1/3 Inverse theory; probabilistic methods||Tutorial: Inverse theory Computer lab: Intro to Unix & Seismic Analysis Code (SAC)|
|2||Module 1/ Week 2 2/1 Introduction II; The things that Jules Verne didn’t know I 2/2 The things that Jules Verne didn’t know II 2/3 Introduction to rocks; theory of elasticity||Tutorial: General questions & discussion; The strength of rocks; highest cliffs on Earth Computer lab: Earthquake location 1|
|3||Module 1/ Week 3 2/1 Theory of elasticity contd.; Hooke’s law 2/2 Wave equation 2/3 Wave equation contd.; Energy partitioning and boundary conditions||Tutorial: Vector & differential calculus revision; tensors; Earthquake hypocentre location Computer lab: Earthquake location 2|
|4||Module 1/ Week 4 3/1 Energy partitioning revision; Intro to ray theory; Fermat’s principle 2/2 Ray theory; parametric travel-time/epicentral distance equations 2/3 Wiechert-Herglotz inversion for Earth’s velocity structure||Tutorial: Liquid/solid boundary; energy partitioning and boundary conditions; Snell’s law via Fermat principle Computer lab: Seismic source inversion 1 Lab 1 report due week 4 (5% of the mark)|
|5||Module 1/ Week 5 1/1 Mohorovicic’s method and discovery of Moho 1/2 Introduction to seismic sources 1/3 Seismic sources contnd.||Tutorial: Body waves nomenclature; Discussion about moment tensor inversion; Surface waves Computer lab: Seismic source inversion 2 Assignment due Week 5 (10% of the mark)|
|6||Module 1/ Week 6 1/1 Earth structure I 1/2 Earth structure II 1/3 The things that Jules Verne didn’t know and the things we know today||Tutorial: Course revision Computer lab: Miscellaneous Oral presentation week 6 (10% of the mark)|
|7||Module 2 / Week 1 Introduction to module 2: Geological time, the age of the Earth, plate tectonics and viscoelastic flow.||Tutorial: An introduction to dating Computer lab: Dynamic models 1 Lab 2 report due week 7 (5% of the mark)|
|8||Module 2 / Week 2 The principles of fluid dynamics: viscous flow v. inviscid flow v. creeping flow.||Tutorial: Plate tectonic theory Computer lab?: Dynamic models 2|
|9||Module 2 / Week 3 The Earth’s heat engine and plate motions, theory and application to terrestrial planets||Tutorial: Continuum mechanics, Non-dimensional numbers the Navier-Stokes and Stokes equations - pt1 Computer lab: Dynamic models 3|
|10||Module 2 / Week 4 The Earth’s gravity field, topography and relation to internal dynamics.||Tutorial: Continuum mechanics, Non-dimensional numbers the Navier-Stokes and Stokes equations - pt2 Computer lab: Project work 1|
|11||Module 2 / Week 5 The dynamics of the Earth’s Lithosphere and the connection between internal dynamics and Earthquakes||Tutorial: Open Discussion Computer lab: Project work 2|
|12||Module 2 / Week 6 The relationship between whole Earth dynamics, global and local changes in sea-level.||Tutorial: Open Discussion Computer lab: Project finalisation|
|Assessment task||Value||Due Date||Return of assessment||Learning Outcomes|
|Computer Lab assignment (1 of 2)||5 %||09/08/2019||09/08/2019||1,2|
|Homework assignment||10 %||16/08/2019||16/08/2019||1,2|
|Oral Presentation||10 %||23/08/2019||23/08/2019||1,2|
|Computer Lab assignment (2 of 2)||5 %||30/08/2019||30/08/2019||1,2|
|Computer lab project Module 2||15 %||31/10/2019||31/10/2019||1,2|
|Homework assessments, Module 2||15 %||30/09/2019||31/10/2019||1,2|
* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details
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Moderation of Assessment
Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.
Participation in lectures is strongly recommended. Participation in computer labs is required. Participation in tutorials is not mandatory but is strongly recommended.
Assessment Task 1
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
Answer five of the six questions (3 questions from Module 1 and 3 questions from Module 2). All questions are of equal value.
All questions to be completed in the script book provided.
The date range in the Assessment Summary indicates the start of the end of semester exam period and the date official end of semester results are released on ISIS. Please check the ANU final Examination Timetable http://www.anu.edu.au/students/program-administration/assessments-exams/examination-timetable to confirm the date, time and location exam.
Assessment Task 2
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
Computer Lab assignment (1 of 2)
There are two assignments related to each computer lab topic. The first assignment is on earthquake location using travel times of P and S waves. This assignment includes a computer program for the determination of the earthquake location.
Assessment Task 3
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
A combination of descriptive and problem tasks related to the lecture content.
Assessment Task 4
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
Students present selected research papers relevant to the course content. Each presentation is 15-20 minutes long. Students are assessed on their understanding of the content, oral presentations skills including the timing, participation in the discussion.
Assessment Task 5
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
Computer Lab assignment (2 of 2)
There are two assignments related to each computer lab topic. The second assignment is on seismic moment tensor inversion using full waveform modelling.
Assessment Task 6
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
Computer lab project Module 2
There will be a number of projects from which students can choose to work on 1 over the second half of the course. The final result will be a jupyter-notebook based written project with results from numerical models included. Credit will be given for contextualising the work and for the computer code.
Assessment Task 7
Learning Outcomes: 1,2
Homework assessments, Module 2
Multiple short tasks arising from lecture and tutorial materials.
Students are expected to contribute on an on-going basis throughout the module. The date range for this task comprises the start of the module and the start of the exam period. Details will be available on the course Wattle site.
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- Late submission permitted. Late submission of assessment tasks without an extension are penalised at the rate of 5% of the possible marks available per working day or part thereof. Late submission of assessment tasks is not accepted after 10 working days after the due date, or on or after the date specified in the course outline for the return of the assessment item. Late submission is not accepted for take-home examinations.
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Resubmission of Assignments
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Structure and dynamics of the Earth's interior using observational seismology and advances in mathematical geophysics; the inner and outer core, the lowermost mantle, inner boundaries; characterisation of inhomogeneities and anisotropy in Earth; new approaches in lithospheric imaging. - physics of seismic sources; full moment tensor representation of non-double-couple sources. - improving global coverage of seismic data by deployments in remote regions of Earth.
Prof Hrvoje Tkalcic
Prof Hrvoje Tkalcic