• Class Number 8627
  • Term Code 3060
  • Class Info
  • Unit Value 6 units
  • Mode of Delivery In Person
    • Dr Babita Bhatt
    • Dr Babita Bhatt
  • Class Dates
  • Class Start Date 27/07/2020
  • Class End Date 30/10/2020
  • Census Date 31/08/2020
  • Last Date to Enrol 03/08/2020
SELT Survey Results

Social enterprises and social businesses (enterprises pursuing the dual mission of financial sustainability and social purpose) are becoming important actors in addressing poverty and achieving sustainable development goals. Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, STREAT and CERES in Australia, Dialogue in the Dark in Europe, Honey Care in Africa are some of the examples of social enterprises creating livelihood opportunities for marginalized groups through their business model.

This course will introduce students to the theory and practice of social enterprise and social business and their role in social value creation. We will aim to explore how these emerging models are effective in the context of sustainable development goals and how are they addressing the current social economic challenges such as poverty, inequality and environmental crisis while remaining financially sustainable.

Students in the course are expected to be active participants in creating solutions to grand challenges and will learn how to use their skills and knowledge to make a positive impact on the society.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

Upon successful completion of the requirements for this course, students will be able to:
  1. Demonstrate understanding of emerging models in “base of the pyramid” that are scalable, sustainable
  2. Examine and discuss the theory and practice of social business and social enterprise, and identify the facilitators and barriers to social entrepreneurs.
  3. Develop a systematic and critical understanding of emerging business models, and their strengths and weaknesses in addressing social and environmental challenges.
  4. Apply practical tools for their own social enterprise and social business.
  5. Describe and reflect upon contemporary development challenges and the role of social change agents
  6. Examine logistical and ethical issues related to conducting research and developing social ventures in bottom-of-the-pyramid (BOP) communities.

Research-Led Teaching

This course uses the articles published in top-tier management journals to illustrate the emerging issues such as measuring social impact, hybridity, scaling and funding issues in social enterprises. The research assignments provide the opportunity for students to apply their research and analytical skills to various aspect of social enterprises.

Field Trips

There are no field trips in this course.

Additional Course Costs

There are no additional costs expected for this course.

Examination Material or equipment

There are no examinations run by ANU Examinations for this course. There is an in-class examination - see further details in the assessment section.

Required Resources

The course uses journal articles and reports that are available through the ANU library. Further details will be made available via Wattle.

Staff Feedback

Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:

  • written comments
  • verbal comments
  • feedback to whole class, groups, individuals, focus group etc

Student Feedback

ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.

Class Schedule

Week/Session Summary of Activities Assessment
1 Understanding poverty and SDGs: the role of business Sutter, C., Bruton, G. D., & Chen, J. (2019). Entrepreneurship as a solution to extreme poverty: A review and future research directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 34(1), 197-214. Scheyvens, R., Banks, G., & Hughes, E. (2016). The private sector and the SDGs: The need to move beyond ‘business as usual’. Sustainable Development, 24(6), 371-382. Dhahri, S., & Omri, A. (2018). Entrepreneurship contribution to the three pillars of sustainable development: What does the evidence really say? World Development, 106, 64-77.
2 Seminar 2: Understanding debates at Base of the pyramid C. K. Prahalad and Stuart Hart, “The Fortune at the Base of the Pyramid,” Business + Strategy, Issue 26, First Quarter 2002, available www.cs.berkeley.edu/~brewer/ict4b/Fortune-BoP.pdf Aneel Karnani, “Mirage of Marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid: How the Private Sector Can Help Alleviate Poverty,” California Management Review, August 2007, available at http://www.un.org/esa/coordination/Mirage.BOP.CMR.pdf
3 BOP and new emerging models Karamchandani, Ashish, Michael Kubzansky, Paul Frandano, 2009 , “Emerging Markets, Emerging Models”, available online at http://www.beyondthepioneer.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/emergingmarkets_full.pdf Ansari, S., Munir, K., & Gregg, T. (2012). Impact at the ‘bottom of the pyramid’: The role of social capital in capability development and community empowerment. Journal of Management Studies, 49(4), 813-842.
4 Social business: concept and business model Yunus, M. 2009. Creating a world without poverty: Social business and the future of capitalism: PublicAffairs, Global Urban Development Volume 4 Issue 2 Muhammad Yunus, Bertrand Moingeon and Laurence Lehmann-Ortega, 2010, Building Social Business Models: Lessons from the Grameen Experience, Long Range Planning, 43, 308-325 Spieth, P., Schneider, S., Clauß, T., & Eichenberg, D. (2018). Value drivers of social businesses: A business model perspective. Long Range Planning.
5 In class open book exam on Tuesday, 25 August 2020 Duration: 2 hours 30 minutes Type: Short discussion questions
6 Social enterprise: concept and business models Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of business ethics, 111(3), 335-351. Santos, F., Pache, A. C., & Birkholz, C. (2015). Making hybrids work: Aligning business models and organizational design for social enterprises. California Management Review, 57(3), 36-58. Peredo, A. M., & McLean, M. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of world business, 41(1), 56-65.
7 Social impact measurement: debates and tools Wry, T., & Haugh, H. (2018). Brace for impact: Uniting our diverse voices through a social impact frame. Journal of Business Venturing, 33(5), 566-574. Ebrahim, A., & Rangan, V. K. (2014). What impact? A framework for measuring the scale and scope of social performance. California Management Review, 56(3), 118-141. Battilana, J., & Dorado, S. (2010). Building sustainable hybrid organizations: The case of commercial microfinance organizations. Academy of management Journal, 53(6), 1419-1440.
8 Scaling for social impact: issues and challenges André, K., & Pache, A. C. (2016). From caring entrepreneur to caring enterprise: Addressing the ethical challenges of scaling up social enterprises. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 659-675. Smith, B. R., & Stevens, C. E. (2010). Different types of social entrepreneurship: The role of geography and embeddedness on the measurement and scaling of social value. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(6), 575-598. Mulgan G., Tucker S., Rushanara A., Sanders B. (2007). Social Innovation. What it is, why it matters and how it can be accelerated. London: The Young Foundation
9 Funding for social enterprises: Social finance and impact investment Bugg-Levine, A., Kogut, B., & Kulatilaka, N. (2012). A new approach to funding social enterprises. Harvard business review, 90(1/2), 118-123. Schöning, Mirjam, 2011, A Realistic Approach to Impact Investing Observations from the World Economic Forums Global Agenda Council on Social Innovation” Impact Investing (Innovations Journal), MIT Press. Accelerating Impact: Achievements, Challenges and What’s Next in Building the Impact Investing Industry” published by the Rockefeller Foundation. Available at http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org//uploads/images/fda23ba9-ab7e-4c83- 9218-24fdd79289cc.pdf
10 Assessing the role of social enterprises in addressing SDGs McMullen, J. S., & Warnick, B. J. (2016). Should we require every new venture to be a hybrid organization?. Journal of Management Studies, 53(4), 630-662. Foster, W., & Bradach, J. (2005). Should nonprofits seek profits?. Harvard business review, 83(2), 92-100. Saebi, T., Foss, N. J., & Linder, S. (2019). Social entrepreneurship research: Past achievements and future promises. Journal of Management, 45(1), 70-95.
11 Linking theory to practice: Case presentation and critical review of the cases Presentation: in class Length of the presentation: 25 to 30 minutes Group Reports: due one day after the presentation (11.59 pm Wednesday, 21 October 2020)
12 Linking theory to practice: Case presentation and critical review of the cases and course wrap-up Presentation: in class Length of the presentation: 25 to 30 minutes Group Reports: due one day after the presentation (11.59 pm Wednesday, 28 October 2020) Research paper: due 5pm Thursday, 05 November 2020

Tutorial Registration

Further details about the structure and teaching activities for this course will be available on the course Wattle site at the start of Week 1.

Assessment Summary

Assessment task Value Due Date Return of assessment Learning Outcomes
In class open book exam (30%) 30 % 25/08/2020 01/09/2020 1,2,3
Case analysis (total 30%): Group presentations (10%) + Group case report (20%) 30 % * 28/10/2020 3,4,5,6
Review of presentation (5%) 5 % * 28/10/2020 3,4,5,6
Research paper (35%) 35 % 05/11/2020 03/12/2020 1,2,3,4,5,6

* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details


ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:

Assessment Requirements

The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the Academic Integrity . In rare cases where online submission using Turnitin software is not technically possible; or where not using Turnitin software has been justified by the Course Convener and approved by the Associate Dean (Education) on the basis of the teaching model being employed; students shall submit assessment online via ‘Wattle’ outside of Turnitin, or failing that in hard copy, or through a combination of submission methods as approved by the Associate Dean (Education). The submission method is detailed below.

Moderation of Assessment

Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.


Students are expected to attend all classes and attempt all assessments.


There are no examinations run by ANU Examinations for this course. There is an in-class examination - see further details in the assessment section.

Assessment Task 1

Value: 30 %
Due Date: 25/08/2020
Return of Assessment: 01/09/2020
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

In class open book exam (30%)

Individual Assessment

Duration: 2 hours 30 minutes

Type: Short answer questions

Material: it will cover readings and teaching material from Week 1 to Week 4

Students are allowed to bring any reading material that they think might be helpful in writing the exam.

Marking Criteria: Will be posted on Wattle and discussed in the class at least two weeks before due date

Due: in-class Week 5 (Tuesday, 2020-08-25) via Turnitin on Wattle

Feedback Date: 2020-09-01

Assessment Task 2

Value: 30 %
Return of Assessment: 28/10/2020
Learning Outcomes: 3,4,5,6

Case analysis (total 30%): Group presentations (10%) + Group case report (20%)

Group Assessment 

Students will select a social enterprise and evaluate the following components: a) social value creation b) business model c) scaling issues d) sustainability issues

Group Size: Group members will be self-selected by the students in Week 3. The group size will vary depending on the number of student enrollments. But an ideal group size would be 3 students.

Length of the presentation: 25 to 30 minutes

Mode of the presentation: Online/virtual (will be recorded for review purposes)

Marking Criteria: A detailed guideline will be provided in the first week of the class and will be posted on Wattle


  • Presentation: In-class Week 11, 12 (presentation in class)
  • Group Reports: One day after the presentation (11.59 pm, Wednesday) on Wattle

Feedback Date: 2020-10-28

Assessment Task 3

Value: 5 %
Return of Assessment: 28/10/2020
Learning Outcomes: 3,4,5,6

Review of presentation (5%)

Individual assessment

Each student will evaluate one case (team presentation) using the criteria provided in the first week in the class

Marking Criteria: A detailed guideline will be provided in the first week of the class and will be posted on Wattle

Due: In-class Week 11, Week 12

Feedback: 2020-10-28

Assessment Task 4

Value: 35 %
Due Date: 05/11/2020
Return of Assessment: 03/12/2020
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5,6

Research paper (35%)

Individual assessment

Participants will be writing one argumentative research paper for this class. Paper will be evaluated based on the depth of analysis presented, insight demonstrated, and the quality of reflective and critical thinking.

Approximately 3000 words, double space, Font size: 12, Font type: Times New Roman

Referencing style: APA

Marking Criteria: Suggested research topics and detailed rubric will be shared in the class in Week 6

Due: Weeks after the final class (5pm, Thursday 2020-11-05) via Turnitin on Wattle

Return of Assessment: After the release of final grades on 2020-12-03

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a core part of the ANU culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically, committing to honest and responsible scholarly practice and upholding these values with respect and fairness.

The ANU commits to assisting all members of our community to understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to be familiar with the academic integrity principle and Academic Misconduct Rule, uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with.

The Academic Misconduct Rule is in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Very minor breaches of the academic integrity principle may result in a reduction of marks of up to 10% of the total marks available for the assessment. The ANU offers a number of online and in person services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. Visit the Academic Skills website for more information about academic integrity, your responsibilities and for assistance with your assignments, writing skills and study.

Online Submission

You will be required to electronically sign a declaration as part of the submission of your assignment. Please keep a copy of the assignment for your records. Unless an exemption has been approved by the Associate Dean (Education) submission must be through Turnitin.

Hardcopy Submission

For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records.

Late Submission

Individual assessment tasks may or may not allow for late submission. Policy regarding late submission is detailed below:

Late submission permitted. Late submission of assessment tasks without an extension are penalised at the rate of 5% of the possible marks available per working day or part thereof. Late submission of assessment tasks is not accepted after 10 working days after the due date, or on or after the date specified in the course outline for the return of the assessment item. Late submission is not accepted for take-home examinations.

All requests for extensions to assessment in RSM courses must be submitted to the RSM School Office with a completed application form and supporting documentation. The RSM Extension Application Form and further information on this process can be found at https://www.rsm.anu.edu.au/education/education-programs/notices-for-students/extension-application-procedure/

Referencing Requirements

Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.

Returning Assignments

All assignments will be marked and where appropriate feedback will be provided either: in class, or in person by appointment with the course lecturer, or via the course Wattle site.

Extensions and Penalties

Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure. Extensions may be granted for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.

Resubmission of Assignments

Unless specified otherwise in the assignment requirements, resubmission are permitted up until the due date and time, but not allowed afterwards.

Privacy Notice

The ANU has made a number of third party, online, databases available for students to use. Use of each online database is conditional on student end users first agreeing to the database licensor’s terms of service and/or privacy policy. Students should read these carefully. In some cases student end users will be required to register an account with the database licensor and submit personal information, including their: first name; last name; ANU email address; and other information.
In cases where student end users are asked to submit ‘content’ to a database, such as an assignment or short answers, the database licensor may only use the student’s ‘content’ in accordance with the terms of service – including any (copyright) licence the student grants to the database licensor. Any personal information or content a student submits may be stored by the licensor, potentially offshore, and will be used to process the database service in accordance with the licensors terms of service and/or privacy policy.
If any student chooses not to agree to the database licensor’s terms of service or privacy policy, the student will not be able to access and use the database. In these circumstances students should contact their lecturer to enquire about alternative arrangements that are available.

Distribution of grades policy

Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes.

Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.

Support for students

The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).

Dr Babita Bhatt
02 612 57278

Research Interests

  • Hybrid Business models: Social enterprises, social business, Farmer Producer companies
  • Sharing Economy, Platform Economy, and emerging business models
  • Community resilience, social cohesion, and intersectionality

Dr Babita Bhatt

Tuesday 16:00 17:00
Tuesday 16:00 17:00
By Appointment
Dr Babita Bhatt
02 612 57278

Research Interests

Dr Babita Bhatt

Tuesday 16:00 17:00
Tuesday 16:00 17:00
By Appointment

Responsible Officer: Registrar, Student Administration / Page Contact: Website Administrator / Frequently Asked Questions