- Class Number 9084
- Term Code 3060
- Class Info
- Unit Value 6 units
- Mode of Delivery In Person
- Prof Paul Hutchcroft
- Prof Paul Hutchcroft
- Class Dates
- Class Start Date 27/07/2020
- Class End Date 30/10/2020
- Census Date 31/08/2020
- Last Date to Enrol 03/08/2020
This class will give students a look into the murky and ambivalent relationship between violence and political order, from the historical origins of the state to the violent breakdown of political order today. Most theories of political order begin with the perspective that state institutions set limits on the legitimate use of violence and so control the violent tendencies of an anarchic society. Yet state building is itself a deeply violent process. Moreover the state continues to be a prolific user of violence. Aside from the obvious case of war between states, both democratic and authoritarian states engage in varying levels of everyday violence. In some cases, this violence is perceived as legitimate, as in the use of imprisonment as a punishment for criminal activity. In other cases, states transgress norms of legitimate violence, engaging in activities such as torture, sexual violence, and even ethnic cleansing. This course will cover topics including state building, torture, civil war, and crime and punishment. We will read work from political science, political economy, political sociology and political theory. This is a reading intensive seminar.
Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
- Understand different empirical and theoretical approaches to the analysis of state formation and contested political orders
- Develop appropriate conceptual, theoretical, and empirical research methods from political science, political economy, political sociology, and political anthropology
- Compare and analyze variation in processes of state formation and in patterns of contestation over political order, both of which commonly involve very significant levels of violence
- Apply the principles of good research design in developing their own research
- Communicate knowledgeably on a range of topics within the area of state formation and contested political orders
Students may wish to purchase certain books after reviewing the course reading list.
Staff FeedbackStudents will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
- Written comments
- Verbal comments
- Feedback to the whole class, to groups, to individuals, focus groups
Student FeedbackANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.
|Week/Session||Summary of Activities||Assessment|
|1||Agriculture, Inequality, and the State||N.B. There is a substantial reading load in this course, and it is fully expected that each student will studiously keep up with the readings assigned for each class session. The convenor reserves the right to make substitutions in the reading assignments, as appropriate. There may be additional selections to augment the readings for certain sessions. James C. Scott, Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017), pp. 1-35, 116-182. Gintis, Herbert, Carel Van Schaik, Christopher Boehm, Bernard Chapais, Jessica C. Flack, Mark Pagel, Jill D. Pruetz et al. (2015) "Zoon politikon: The evolutionary origins of human political systems." Current Anthropology 56, no. 3: 327-340. It is also highly recommended that you read the critiques and response found on pp. 340-348. Recommended: Carles Boix, Political Order and Inequality: Their Foundations and Their Consequences for Human Welfare (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 1-54.|
|2||Climate, Disease, and the Rise and Decline of the State||John L. Brooke, Climate Change and the Course of Global History: A Rough Journey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp. 121-64, 183-212. Kyle Harper, The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017), pp. 6-22, 65-118, 259-275.|
|3||States and State Formation||Theda Skocpol, “Bringing the State Back In: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research,” in Bringing the State Back In, ed. Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Reuschmeyer, and Theda Skocpol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 7-11. Michael Mann, “The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms, and Results,” European Journal of Sociology 25, no. 2 (1984): 185-213. Read pp. 185-92 and skim the rest. Max Weber, Economy and Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), pp. 973-75, 1028-31. Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1992 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1992). Read “Cities and States in World History” (Chapter 1), pp. 1-37; and “How War Made States, and Vice Versa” (Chapter 3), pp. 67-95. Recommended: “European Cities and States” (Chapter 2), pp. 38-66. Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), Read “Political Modernization: America vs. Europe” (Chapter Two), pp. 93-139. Frances Fukuyama, Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014). Read “Introduction: Development of Political Institutions to the French Revolution,” pp. 3-19; see also the three quotes in the front matter, p. v. Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011). Read “War and the Rise of the Chinese State” (Chapter 7), pp. 110-127; and “The Functioning and Decline of the Ottoman State” (Chapter 15), pp. 214-228. Frances Fukuyama, Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014). Read “Prussia Builds a State” (Chapter 4), pp. 66-80. Recommended: Thomas Ertman, Birth of the Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 1-34, 317-324. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 1944). “Man, Nature, and Productive Organization” (Chapter 11), pp. 130-134; and “Birth of the Liberal Creed” (Chapter 12), pp. 135-150. Douglass C. North. Structure and Change in Economic History. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1981). “A Neoclassical Theory of the State” (Chapter 3), pp. 2-32. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). “The Conceptual Framework” (Chapter 1), pp. 1-29.|
|4||Institutions and Political Order||Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968). Read “Political Institutions: Community and Political Order” (a portion of Chapter 1), pp. 8-32. Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011). Read “The Necessity of Politics” (Chapter 1), pp. 3-25. Frances Fukuyama, Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014). Read “What is Political Development?” (Chapter 1), pp. 23-39; “The Dimensions of Development” (Chapter 2), pp. 40-51; “Bureaucracy” (Chapter 3), pp. 52-65. Kathleen Thelen, “How Institutions Evolve: Insights from Comparative Historical Analysis,” in James Mahoney and Dietrich Reuschemeyer, eds., Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 208-240. Paul D. Hutchcroft and Erik Kuhonta, “Upending the ‘Rules of the Game’: Toward Greater Clarity in the Conceptualization of Institutions.” Presented at the American Political Science Association meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, September 2018. Frances Fukuyama, “The Pandemic and Political Order: It Takes a State,” Foreign Affairs, July-August 2020.|
|5||State Legibility and Territorial Dimensions of the State||James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), pp. 1-102, 183-91, 253-61, 342-57. Paul D. Hutchcroft, “Centralization and Decentralization in Administration and Politics: Assessing Territorial Dimensions of Authority and Power,” Governance 14, no. 1 (January 2001): 23-53.|
|6||Colonial State Formation||Crawford Young, The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), 1-76 (tbc). Paul A. Kramer, “Race, Empire, and Transnational History,” in Alfred W. McCoy and Francisco Scarano, eds., Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of a Modern American State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009), pp. 199-209. Paul D. Hutchcroft, “The Hazards of Jeffersonianism: Challenges of State Building in the U.S. and Its Empire,” in Alfred W. McCoy and Francisco Scarano, eds., Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of a Modern American State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009), pp. 106-115. Alfred W. McCoy, “Policing the Imperial Periphery: Philippine Pacification and the Rise of the U.S. National Security State,” in Alfred W. McCoy and Francisco Scarano, eds., Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of a Modern American State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009), pp. 375-89. Reo Matsuzaki, “State Building Amid Resistance: Administrative Intermediaries and the Making of Colonial Taiwan,” Polity 51, no. 2 (2019): 231-260. Robert H. Jackson and Carl G. Rosberg, “Why Africa’s Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood,” World Politics 35 (October 1982): 1-24|
|7||Wars, Militaries, and States||Brian M. Downing, The military revolution and political change: Origins of democracy and autocracy in early modern Europe (Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1992), pp. 3-17, 56-83. Brian M. Downing, “War and the State in Early Modern Europe,” in Theda Skocpol, ed., Democracy, Revolution, and History (Ithaca: Cornell University, 1998), pp. 25-54. Muthiah Alagappa, “Investigating and Explaining Change: An Analytical Framework,” in Muthiah Alagappa, ed., Coercion and Governance. The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), pp. 29-66. Recommended: Barry R. Posen, “Nationalism, the Mass Army, and Military Power.” International Security 18, no. 2 (1993): 80–124. Tony Ingesson, Mårten Lindberg, Johannes Lindvall, and Jan Teorell, “The Martial Origins of Democracy: A Global Study of Military Conscription and Suffrage Extensions Since the Napoleonic Wars,” Democratization, 25, no. 4 (2018): 633-651. Marcus Mietzner, “Indonesia: The Military’s Transformation from Praetorian Ruler to Presidential Coalition Partner,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Military in Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2020). Eva-Lotta E. Hedman, “The Philippines: Not So Military, Not So Civil,” in in Muthiah Alagappa, Coercion and Governance. The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), pp. 165-86.|
|8||State Power and Social Forces (including Oligarchs, Warlords, and Mafias)||Timothy Mitchell, “The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their Critics,” American Political Science Review 85, no. 1 (March 1991): 77-96 Joel S. Migdal, Atul Kohli, and Vivienne Shue, “Introduction: Developing a State-in-Society Perspective,” in Migdal, Kohli, and Shue, eds., State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 1-4. Atul Kohli and Vivienne Shue, “State Power and Social Forces: On Political Contention and Accommodation in the Third World,” in Migdal, Kohli, and Shue, eds., State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 293-303. Peter Evans, Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation, pp. 43-47. Paul D. Hutchcroft, Booty Capitalism: The Politics of Banking in the Philippines (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998), pp. 16-23. Kimberly Marten, "Warlordism in comparative perspective," International Security 31, no 3 (1997): 41-73. David Skarbek, “Governance and prison gangs,” American Political Science Review 105, no. 4 (2012): 702–716.|
|9||State Power / Law’s Violence||Robert Cover, "Violence and the Word," Yale Law Journal 95, no. 8 (1986): 1601-1629. Walter Benjamin, "Critique of Violence, " in Reflections, ed. by Peter Demetz, translated by Edmund Jephcott (Schocken Books, 1978), pp. 277-300. Jacques Derrida, "Force of Law: The 'Mystical Foundation of Authority,'" Cardozo Law Review, 11, no. 5-6 (1989): 921-1045 (read certain English-language portions, tbd, from what is a bilingual text). Mary Hawkesworth, "Analyzing the State and the Nation," special issue on Gender and Political Theory: Feminist Reckonings, Polity, 2019: 118-151. Catharine A. MacKinnon, "The Liberal State," in Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 157-170. Marilyn Lake, "Equality and Exclusion: The Racial Constitution of Colonial Liberalism," Thesis Eleven no. 95 (2008): 20–32. Achille Mbembe, "The Banality of Power and the Aesthetics of Vulgarity in the Postcolony," Public Culture 4, no. 2 (1992): 1-30. Begoña Aretxaga, “Maddening States,” Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (October 2003): 393-410. Recommended: Paul R. Brass, “Foucault Steals Political Science,” Annual Review of Political Science 3 (2000): 305-330.|
|10||Locating Women and Children in the Gendered Politics of War and Conflict||Paul Kirby, “Ending Sexual Violence in Conflict: The Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative and Its Critics,” International Affairs 91, Issue 3 (May 2015): 457–472. Elizabeth A. Faulkner and Conrad Nyamutata, “The Decolonisation of Children’s Rights and the Colonial Contours of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,” International Journal of Children’s Rights 28 (2020): 66-88 Rita Manchanda, “Difficult Encounters with the WPS Agenda in South Asia: Re-scripting Globalised Norms and Policy Frameworks for a Feminist Peace,” in New Directions in Women, Peace and Security, ed. by Soumita Basu, Paul Kirby, and Laura J. Shepherd, (Bristol: Bristol University Press, 2020), pp. 61-82. Additional readings: Bina D’Costa, “Gender Justice and (In)security in Pakistan and Afghanistan,” Journal of Postcolonial Studies 19, no. 4 (2017): 409-426. Myriam Denov, Amber Green, Angela Atim Lakor, and Janet Arach, “Mothering in the Aftermath of Forced Marriage and Wartime Rape,” Journal of the Motherhood Initiative 9, no. 1 (2018). Augustine Park, S. J. “‘Other Inhumance Acts’: Forced Marriage, Girl Soldiers and the Special Court for Sierra Leone.” John Lowe, “Masculinizing National Service: The Cultural Reproduction of Masculinities and Militarization of Male Citizenship in Singapore,” Journal of Gender Studies 28, no. 6 (2019): 687-698. Lee Ann Fujii, "The Puzzle of Extra-lethal Violence," Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 2 (2013): 410-426. Darius Rejali, Torture and democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009), pp. 1-31, 144-166, 405-479. Dara Kay Cohen, "Explaining Rape During Civil War: Cross-National Evidence (1980–2009)," American Political Science Review 107, no. 3 (2013): 461-477. Dara Kay Cohen, Rape during Civil War (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2016). Elisabeth Jean Wood, "Variation in Sexual Violence during War," Politics & Society 34, no. 3 (2006): 307-41. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (2nd ed.) (New York: Vintage Books, 1995), pp. 3-31. Lee Ann Fujii, “‘Talk of the town’: Explaining Pathways to Participation in Violent Display,” Journal of Peace Research, 54, no. 5 (2017): 661-673. Roxanne L. Euben, “Spectacles of Sovereignty in Digital Time: ISIS Executions, Visual Rhetoric and Sovereign Power,” Perspectives on Politics, 15, no. 4 (2017): 1007-1033. Paul Richards, Fighting for the Rain Forest: War, Youth, and Resources in Sierra Leone (London: James Currey Ltd., 1996).|
|11||Sources and Patterns of Internal Conflict||Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, “Greed and Grievance in Civil War” (May 2000). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2355. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=630727 Stathis N. Kalyvas, “The Ontology of ‘Political Violence’: Action and Identity in Civil Wars,” Perspectives on Politics 1, no. 3 (2003): 475-494. Stuart Kaufman, “Symbolic Politics or Rational Choice? Testing Theories of Extreme Ethnic Violence,” International Security 30, no. 4 (Spring 2006): 45-86. Recommended: Stathis N. Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) pp. 1-31, 52-209, 330-392 (skim 210-330). Paul Staniland, “States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders,” Perspectives on Politics 10, no. 2 (2012): 243–264.|
|12||The Decline of Violence||Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Penguin, 2011), pp. 37-97, 139-154, 210-278, 322-334, 811-841 Recommended: Human Security Centre, Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. Vancouver, 2006. Edward Aspinall, Robin Jeffrey and Anthony J. Regan, eds., Diminishing Conflicts in Asia and the Pacific: Why Some Subside and Others Don’t (London: Routledge, 2013). Introduction (pp. 1-13) and conclusion (pp. 265-280), both jointly authored by the editors of the volume. Therése Pettersson and Magnus Öberg, “Organized violence, 1989–2019,” Journal of Peace Research 57, no. 4 (2020): 597–613|
|Assessment task||Value||Due Date||Return of assessment||Learning Outcomes|
|Critical seminar discussion||10 %||31/10/2020||31/10/2020||1, 2, 3, 5|
|Weekly Wattle Forum Discussion Contributions||10 %||31/10/2020||31/10/2020||1, 2, 3|
|Seminar presentation||10 %||31/10/2020||31/10/2020||1, 2, 3, 5|
|Mid-term Essay||25 %||21/09/2020||05/10/2020||1, 2, 3, 5|
|Final Essay||45 %||16/11/2020||03/12/2020||1,2,3,4,5|
* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details
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Assessment Task 1
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 5
Critical seminar discussion
10% of total grade. Students are expected to attend all seminar sessions and actively participate in seminar discussions with consistent and intelligent contributions. If a student expects to be absent due to illness or emergency, he or she should (whenever practicable) email the convenor prior to the seminar.
Assessment Task 2
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3
Weekly Wattle Forum Discussion Contributions
10% of total grade. Students will be required to submit brief comments on readings for ten of the twelve weeks of the semester. They should be roughly 200 words in length, and will be marked on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory scale. Should a student submit fewer than ten comments, a mark of zero will be given for each missing assignment. Submissions after the seminar will not be accepted.
The discussion contributions are to be turned in by 9:00 pm on the Tuesday evening prior to the Wednesday seminar. They should be submitted via Wattle, and thus be available for all participants to read. In addition, your discussion contributions should be sent to the course convenor at firstname.lastname@example.org; on those weeks in which we have a guest facilitator, he will then share them with the colleague that will be leading the seminar. Please note further that you should not submit a contribution for the week in which you are providing a seminar presentation.
Your contributions will examine the assigned readings for the week, and there are a range of directions in which your contributions can go. You can pose questions for discussion, highlight salient quotes, draw parallels with readings in other weeks, note particular strengths/weaknesses of an argument, etc. This should be viewed as a “rapid response” exercise rather than as a polished piece of work, providing some quick reflections in advance of the weekly seminar.
Assessment Task 3
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 5
10% of final grade. Each student will make one 10-12 minute presentation to open up a seminar. These presentations should examine major issues and arguments found in the readings, and raise important questions for discussion—focusing more on the forest than the trees. In preparing presentations, students are expected to concentrate primarily on the assigned readings, but are of course welcome to supplement their analysis with the recommended readings and other relevant works.
Your task is not to summarize the readings, but rather to examine critically and comparatively some aspect of the author or authors' arguments, evidence, conclusion, theoretical contribution and/or interpretation. Some of the questions you might examine are: How does the analysis relate to other analyses assigned either for the same week or for previous weeks? What is the main argument of the author or authors? What evidence is brought to bear? Are you convinced by the conclusion? What do you see as particular strengths and weaknesses of the argument, or gaps that deserve further attention? What alternative explanations or interpretations might you find convincing? What interesting comparative insights come forth, and how applicable do you find them either in cross-national or cross-temporal terms? What are the key theoretical contributions that the author or authors are trying to make, and do they succeed? If the author were to join our seminar (even if this were to require coming back from the grave), what key question or questions might you want to pose to him or her?
These questions are intended to provide a sense of the many diverse ways in which you might structure your presentation, and you will of course need to choose a focus that is readily tractable within the time limits noted above.
Assessment Task 4
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 5
1750 words, 25% of the final grade. The questions for the first essay will be distributed on Friday 4 September and be due on Monday 21 September. It will cover the readings and discussion in the first six weeks of the semester.
Assessment Task 5
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5
3000 words, 45% of the final grade. The questions for the second essay will be distributed on Monday 2 November and be due on Monday 16 November. It will cover the readings and discussion across the entire semester.
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Comparative politics, Southeast Asian politics
Prof Paul Hutchcroft
Prof Paul Hutchcroft