• Class Number 6687
  • Term Code 3160
  • Class Info
  • Unit Value 6 units
  • Mode of Delivery In Person
    • Dr Adam Masters
    • Dr Adam Masters
  • Class Dates
  • Class Start Date 26/07/2021
  • Class End Date 29/10/2021
  • Census Date 14/09/2021
  • Last Date to Enrol 02/08/2021
SELT Survey Results

As the world becomes a more interconnected place, sport has become a cultural sphere in which localities, regions, and nations meet to compete individually or as teams for prizes ranging from simple peer recognition, health, and fitness to celebrity status. Yet there is a darker side to sport. Highly visible scandals and allegations of corruption mean that the results of sporting competition are brought into doubt on an ever-increasing basis.

This course will introduce students to the multifaceted nature of corruption in sport and to useful theoretical approaches to analysing the phenomena. For example, theories of organisational culture provide a framework to explain why corruption occurs in one team, club, league, or sport and not another. Situational crime prevention theory will guide thinking about corruption prevention. On completion, students will have the academic skills to critically analyse the phenomena by synthesising a variety of disciplinary approaches to this issue and show them that sport is now so much more than just a game.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

  1. evaluate and compare the utility of different disciplinary approaches to the study of corruption;
  2. describe how corruption in sport differs from corruption in other sectors;
  3. compare and analyse corrupt conduct in different professional and amateur sporting contexts;
  4. develop practical and policy oriented recommendations to counter corruption in different sporting contexts; and
  5. explain how different opportunities and structure influence the degree and acceptance of corruption in sport.

Research-Led Teaching

Presentations and short papers will contribute to an ongoing research project on a National Sport Integrity Framework. Any student work incorporated into the project will be acknowledged.

Field Trips

Students will be encouraged during non-tutorial weeks to go to professional and amateur sporting events. At these events, they should look out for actual or potential integrity violations.

Staff Feedback

Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:

  • written comments
  • verbal comments
  • feedback to whole class, groups, individuals, focus group etc

Student Feedback

ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.

Class Schedule

Week/Session Summary of Activities Assessment
1 Week 1 – The Sociology of Sport (26-30 July) Pt I - Course overview, expectations, introduction to staff Pt II - The Modern Olympics and the sociology of sport In the developed world, every weekend millions of people attend sporting events as participants, spectators, officials, administrators, parents or in a multitude of other roles. While organised sporting competition has existed since the ancient times, in the past two centuries it has developed into a significant part of daily life for many. Since the advent of radio, television and the internet, sport has become even more accessible at a global level. In week 1, we begin with an introduction to the course and expectations for students and then examine the sub-discipline of sport sociology and the rise of the modern Olympic Games as a globalising movement among amateur athletes. There is a tutorial in Week 1. This tutorial covers some important information on the assessments for the course.
2 Week 2 - Professionalizing sport, or corrupting sport? (2-6 Aug) Pt I – Cricket – Gentlemen and players – the rise of the professional athlete Pt II - Baseball – White Sox - A historical perspective As sport became popular in the 19th century, skilled players began to sell their services. Thus emerged the professional athlete particularly in team sport. This change marked the shift to what is understood to be modern sport. For some, professionalization represented a corruption of ‘pure’ sporting competition. Teams no longer necessary reflected the sporting skills and abilities of a town, district or city, teams reflected economic capacity of the owners. In week 2, the course turns toward corruption and how it applies to sport. Tutorial discussion: Professionalisation, corruption and sociological approaches to sport Individual presentations (assessment task 3)
3 Week 3 – The Winners (9-13 Aug) Pt I – Cycling – Lance Armstrong – the psychology of winning (at any cost) Pt II - Analysing corruption: Types of corruption; Activities corrupted; Sector; Place The drive to win has blurred the line for individual athletes on what is or is not corrupt in relation to their particular sport. The example of cycling illustrates how the drive for individual achievement can corrupt the key athlete, his/her team, the support personnel and the sport in general. With this as background, week 3 begins to explore a method to analyse sport corruption to improve our understanding of what is happening with a view to finding interventions. Individual presentations (assessment task 3)
4 Week 4 – The Globalisation of Sport (commercialisation & politicisation) (16-20 Aug) Pt I – Hosting the games I – The Olympics – international relations / prestige Pt II - Hosting the games II – The World Cup – foreign bribery and international law: Global architecture of corruption control The modern Olympic Games is controlled by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) which is ‘committed to building a better world through sport.’ Since Olympic revitalisation the games have grown in prestige so much so that simply being awarded host rights is interpreted as a marker of having made it as a nation in the modern era. The political significance of the Olympic Games crystalised with the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In more recent decades, the selection of host city is regularly criticised for being a corrupt exercise, the same for Fédération Internationale Football Association (FIFA) and the Football World Cup – do these allegations have substance? What are the preventive measures in place to control IOC and FIFA corruption in the international sphere? No tutorial - Students to work on group presentations and short paper.
5 Week 5 – Playing to Lose (23-27 Aug) Pt I - Racing - Fine Cotton and the sport of kings – gambling and sport Pt II – Match fixing I – the players – corrupt individuals Gambling has long been associated with sport. The thrill of winning a bet can complement a gambler’s satisfaction of knowing her or his team has won. However, corrupting sport is not always about winning, sometimes it is about losing. Like all other forms of sport corruption, the reasons behind corruptly playing to lose vary from case to case. This week begins our closer look at the relationship between sport and gambling and the methods employed by individuals to fix the results. Individual presentations (assessment task 3)
6 Week 6 – Corrupted Administration (30 Aug - 3 Sep) Pt I – Match fixing II – the officials – corrupt individuals Pt II - Match fixing III – the administrators – corrupt organizations Match-fixing is not always about individual athletes – competitors may try their best and be totally unaware the game has been rigged against them. The lecture for week 6 explores how officials, administrators and those affiliated with sport can change sporting outcomes. While the motivations are often the same, understanding the opportunity structure and the methods available to non-athletes remains essential to developing means to control sport corruption. Individual presentations (assessment task 3) Short Papers Due
7 Week 7 – Playing to Win - Guest lecture (Catherine Ordway TBC) (20-24 Sep) Pt I – Drugs in sport I – East German swimmers – Nationalism and corrupt cultures Pt II - Drugs in sport II – ASADA and Australian football – local / parochial corrupt cultures While professionalization, commercialisation and politicisation are driving forces behind sport doping, it could not happen without the medicalisation of sport. Sport science has evolved to enable humans and animals to incrementally improve on past performances in a continuous chase for new records. The darker side of sports medicine is doping. The response to control doping has been an increasing number of private laws and regulations. No Tutorial- Students to work on group presentations
8 Week 8 – Organized crime and sport (27 Sep - 1 Oct) Pt I – The Major Leagues – serious organized crime and sport Pt II - Basketball and brand piracy – transnational crime and responses - Interpol The financial benefits associated with corrupt sport has long attracted the attention of organised crime. The structure and exploitation of sport by organised crime has evolved from fixing single matches to sophisticated transnational money-laundering, brand piracy and human trafficking. Week 8 investigates the extent to which organised criminal groups are involved in sport and why. Group Presentations (assessment Task 2)
9 Week 9 – Controlling corruption in sport (4-8 Oct) Pt I – Referees and other whistleblowers – uncovering corruption in sport (control) Pt II - Paralympics - the simpler games? - You can’t make a rule for everything Is it all bad, should we give up on sport as a social activity? Of course not, but there are many things that can be done to control corruption and criminality in sport. This week we begin to analyse the tools available to policy makers and sports administrators to control corruption. Some of these have been developed in other fields and require modification for sport. Others can apply immediately. Understanding what to use and when is critical to combatting corruption. Individual presentations (assessment task 3)
10 Week 10 – outlawed sport and crime (11-15 Oct) Pt I - Billiards – controlling corruption in sport - actions and consequences (control) Pt II - Dogfighting, cockfighting, drag-racing, bare-knuckled boxing and other banned sports – the lure of the illicit The path to state regulation of sport is a difficult one. Historically, many sports have been outlawed – animal fights, bare-knuckle boxing and the like. More recently, steeple chasing in Victoria has been banned and the NSW premier unsuccessfully attempted to ban greyhound racing. The theme here is often cruelty, but as the NSW case demonstrates, this is not always the most powerful social force. This week looks at the extreme end of state response to sports that have become so corrupt as to be socially unacceptable, yet often persist. No tutorial - students to work on final essay
11 Week 11 – The Paid Losers (18-22 Oct) Pt I – Boxing – fixing the fights and fighting the fixers Pt II - From hero to zero – sportsmen and crime Loser, according to the Oxford English Dictionary is defined as: 1. A destroyer. Obs. 2 a. One who loses or suffers loss. b. A squanderer or waster (of time). c. A horse that loses in a race. d. a bad, poor (or good) loser: a person who loses with bad (or good) grace. e. An unsuccessful or incompetent person, a failure. 3. Billiards. A losing hazard. 4. U.S. slang. A convicted criminal, a person who has served a sentence in prison. So two-time (or three-time, etc.) loser, a person who has been in prison twice (or three, etc., times). 5. Bridge. a. A losing card. 6. Tennis. A losing stroke. When looking at sport corruption, any of these meanings could apply. A corrupt sporting loser has greater motivation to forfeit a competition than the adulation and pride involved in winning. In this penultimate week, we look at the consequences of sport corruption on those found out. Individual presentations (assessment task 3)
12 Week 12 – The unpaid losers – the Fans (25-29 Oct) Pt I – Disappointing the fans – price gouging, thrown matches, ticket scalpers Pt II - Taiwan baseball - voting with their feet – the fans and social movements against corruption in sport In this final week, we look at sports fans. As a shortening of the word ‘fanatic’, fans can be extremely passionate. With a short documentary for background material, the final lecture explores where fans fit in to the picture of corruption in sport, as victims or participants. Individual presentations (assessment task 3) Final Essay Due - Monday ,1 November 2021 (1700 Canberra Time)

Tutorial Registration

Tutorial registration is via the Wattle page. Tutorial timing includes an early morning session for workers, and a later afternoon zoom tutorial for students in other timezones.

Assessment Summary

Assessment task Value Due Date Learning Outcomes
Participation (10%) 10 % * 1,5
Group presentation (10 minutes - 10%) 10 % * 4,5
Individual Presentation (10 minutes - 20%) 20 % * 2,5
Short paper (1500 words - 20%) 20 % 02/09/2021 1,3
essay (2500 words - 40%) 40 % 01/11/2021 1,2,3,4

* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details


ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:

Assessment Requirements

The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the Academic Integrity . In rare cases where online submission using Turnitin software is not technically possible; or where not using Turnitin software has been justified by the Course Convener and approved by the Associate Dean (Education) on the basis of the teaching model being employed; students shall submit assessment online via ‘Wattle’ outside of Turnitin, or failing that in hard copy, or through a combination of submission methods as approved by the Associate Dean (Education). The submission method is detailed below.

Moderation of Assessment

Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.

Assessment Task 1

Value: 10 %
Learning Outcomes: 1,5

Participation (10%)

Student participation includes attendance at tutorials to provide feedback and peer review of individual presentations. Tutorial participation includes completing the set readings each week, contributing to discussions and interacting with the tutor and other students.

Assessment Task 2

Value: 10 %
Learning Outcomes: 4,5

Group presentation (10 minutes - 10%)

Assessment task 2 addresses learning outcomes 4 and 5. Within a sub-group, students will develop practical and policy-oriented recommendations to counter corruption in different sporting contexts; and explain how different opportunities and structure influence the degree and acceptance of corruption in sport.


Each tutorial will be divided into three groups of students. Each group will prepare a 10-minute presentation in week 8’s tutorial reviewing a sport related movie or documentary. Presentations will include:

·      A synopsis of the film

·      A description of the social setting and social issues depicted in the film

·      If the film depicted sport corruption - What corruption occurred in relation to the sport – identifying the corruption type/s; what activity/ies were being corrupted, the sport corrupted and the place it occurred.

·      How did the character justify the corruption

·      If the film depicted criminal behaviour, identify the crime as per above and how the character justified their crime

·      A short discussion on what sociological or criminology theories could explain the character actions.

·      What policy response could alleviate the corruption or criminality.

Presentations will be timed and groups cut-off at ten minutes to replicate professional conference conditions.

A list of films and an assessment rubric will be included on the Wattle site.

Assessment Task 3

Value: 20 %
Learning Outcomes: 2,5

Individual Presentation (10 minutes - 20%)

Assessment tasks 3 & 4 form a mini-research sub-project for the National Sport Integrity Framework pilot project led by Prof. Lisa Kihl (University of Minnesota); Dr Catherine Ordway (University of Canberra), Dr Bram Constandt (University of Ghent, Belgium) and Dr Adam Masters (ANU).  The NSIF pilot project explores how sport integrity systems function and interact between the local and national levels. An integrity system consists of individuals, institutions, policies, practices, and agencies that contribute to safeguarding the integrity of an organization (Huberts & Six, 2012). Understanding how such systems work will enable better responses to corruption and other integrity violations.

All students will deliver a 10 minute presentation linked to learning outcomes 2, 4 and 5. Students will present to their tutorial group a brief desk review via an infographic of the integrity systems for a Canberra based sporting club or organisation linked to the Coalition of Major Professional and Participation Sports (COMPPS) – this can include schools.


The presentation needs to explain how the integrity system could be informed by two relevant academic disciplines (e.g. criminology; sociology; psychology; policy studies; political science’ international relations etc.). 

The desk review should be approached from the point of view of an athlete or parent, looking to join the sport, but concerned about integrity.

The infographic should be tailored to the sport organization that explains their integrity system (examples available on Wattle).

A template provided will guide students toward the sort of information they need to include in their presentation.

An assessment rubric will be included on the Wattle site.

Assessment Task 4

Value: 20 %
Due Date: 02/09/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,3

Short paper (1500 words - 20%)

Assessment tasks 3 & 4 form a mini-research sub-project for the National Sport Integrity Framework pilot project led by Prof. Lisa Kihl (University of Minnesota); Dr Catherine Ordway (University of Canberra), Dr Bram Constandt (University of Ghent, Belgium) and Dr Adam Masters (ANU). The NSIF pilot project explores how sport integrity systems function and interact between the local and national levels. An integrity system consists of individuals, institutions, policies, practices, and agencies that contribute to safeguarding the integrity of an organization (Huberts & Six, 2012). Understanding how such systems work will enable better responses to corruption and other integrity violations.

Building on the desk presentation of the desk review, students are to write a short report to evaluate and compare the utility of different disciplinary approaches to the study of corruption. The paper will also compare and analyse corrupt conduct in different professional and amateur sporting contexts.

Using one type of corrupt conduct or integrity violation related to organization investigated in the individual presentation (assessment task 3), the short paper needs to explain:

·      why the behaviour may occur using theoretical perspectives from both criminology and sociology

·      the significance of any differences between professional and amateur athletes within the sport when they commit the selected type of corruption/integrity violation

·      How the integrity system of the organization has or could respond to the corruption/integrity violation

A rubric will be provided on the Wattle page

Late submission of short papers not permitted without an approved extension.

Assessment Task 5

Value: 40 %
Due Date: 01/11/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4

essay (2500 words - 40%)

All students must prepare an essay of 2500 words (+/- 10%) to answer an essay question. Students must use APA (American Psychological Association) 6th or 7th referencing for the essay. The reference list is not included in the word count.

Essay questions Students will develop their own essay questions. Final questions will be settled by week 6.

A rubric will be provided on the Wattle page

Late submission of essays not permitted without an approved extension.

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a core part of the ANU culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically, committing to honest and responsible scholarly practice and upholding these values with respect and fairness.

The ANU commits to assisting all members of our community to understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to be familiar with the academic integrity principle and Academic Misconduct Rule, uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with.

The Academic Misconduct Rule is in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Very minor breaches of the academic integrity principle may result in a reduction of marks of up to 10% of the total marks available for the assessment. The ANU offers a number of online and in person services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. Visit the Academic Skills website for more information about academic integrity, your responsibilities and for assistance with your assignments, writing skills and study.

Online Submission

You will be required to electronically sign a declaration as part of the submission of your assignment. Please keep a copy of the assignment for your records. Unless an exemption has been approved by the Associate Dean (Education) submission must be through Turnitin.

Hardcopy Submission

For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records. - NOT APPLICABLE

Late Submission

Individual assessment tasks may or may not allow for late submission. Policy regarding late submission is detailed below:

  • Late submission not permitted. If submission of assessment tasks without an extension after the due date is not permitted, a mark of 0 will be awarded.

Referencing Requirements

Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.

Extensions and Penalties

Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure. Extensions may be granted for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.

Privacy Notice

The ANU has made a number of third party, online, databases available for students to use. Use of each online database is conditional on student end users first agreeing to the database licensor’s terms of service and/or privacy policy. Students should read these carefully. In some cases student end users will be required to register an account with the database licensor and submit personal information, including their: first name; last name; ANU email address; and other information.
In cases where student end users are asked to submit ‘content’ to a database, such as an assignment or short answers, the database licensor may only use the student’s ‘content’ in accordance with the terms of service – including any (copyright) licence the student grants to the database licensor. Any personal information or content a student submits may be stored by the licensor, potentially offshore, and will be used to process the database service in accordance with the licensors terms of service and/or privacy policy.
If any student chooses not to agree to the database licensor’s terms of service or privacy policy, the student will not be able to access and use the database. In these circumstances students should contact their lecturer to enquire about alternative arrangements that are available.

Distribution of grades policy

Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes.

Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.

Support for students

The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).

Dr Adam Masters
+61 2 6125 0787

Research Interests

Corruption & integrity - especially in sport & unions; organised crime;

Dr Adam Masters

By Appointment
By Appointment
Dr Adam Masters
6125 0787

Research Interests

Dr Adam Masters

By Appointment
By Appointment

Responsible Officer: Registrar, Student Administration / Page Contact: Website Administrator / Frequently Asked Questions