• Class Number 2383
  • Term Code 3130
  • Class Info
  • Unit Value 6 units
  • Topic On Campus
  • Mode of Delivery In Person
    • EmPr Luca Tacconi
    • EmPr Luca Tacconi
  • Class Dates
  • Class Start Date 22/02/2021
  • Class End Date 28/05/2021
  • Census Date 31/03/2021
  • Last Date to Enrol 01/03/2021
SELT Survey Results

In this course we examine local, national and international environmental governance issues, with a focus on ethical principles, theories and frameworks that may be used to analyze and address a range of  problems relating to the environment and development, such as biodiversity conservation, deforestation and climate change, and fisheries management. We consider the organizations, institutions and actors influencing the use of the environment and resources, and we look for policies and tools to address the problems. A range of resource management regimes and modes of management are considered, including common property management, market and non-market incentives for resource management, decentralization, and corporate environmental behaviour.

The course adopts a discussion-based approach to learning which involves active student participation. Learning activities include interactive lectures with the course convener and guest lecturers, tutorials involving group work, class debate, and critical essays and reports.

It is recommended students  read the assigned material before the lecture, addressing at least the assigned questions. Supplementary readings are listed for each week (and available on the internet, or through the library) to exemplify the practical application of the theory discussed, or to allow interested students to go delve deeper in the frameworks and theories. Reading this material is not a requirement, unless specified by the course convener.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

  1. have knowledge of key theories and frameworks underpinning environmental governance;
  2. be able to critically analyse and write about environmental governance issues;
  3. be capable to contribute to the development of solutions to environmental governance problems at the local, national and global levels.

Staff Feedback

Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
  • Written comments
  • Verbal comments
  • Feedback to the whole class, to groups, to individuals, focus groups

Student Feedback

ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.

Class Schedule

Week/Session Summary of Activities Assessment
1 Power and change: theory and practice Readings Rahman, Md et al 2018 Policy changes resulting in power changes? Quantitative evidence from 25 years of forest policy development in Bangladesh. Land Use Policy, 70: 419-431. This paper presents a short, useful review of policy analysis and change literature, and then applies it to a case study to consider how policy reform affects power. Green D., 2016. A power and system approach to making change happen. Chapter 12 in How Change Happens. Oxford University Press. This chapter presents a succinct description of the framework developed by this very experienced practitioner and activist who has worked with Oxfam for many years and is Professor of Practice at the London School of Economics.
2 The socpe of environmental governance Readings Lemos, M. C., A. Agrawal. 2006. Environmental governance. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31: 297-325. This reading provides a perspective on the scope of environmental governance. The environmental problems considered are examples of how environmental governance may contribute to addressing current problems. Students who are not interested in those specific problems may like to skip the last part of the paper. Tacconi, L., 2011. Developing environmental governance research: The example of forest cover change studies. Environmental Conservation 38(2): 234-246. This paper contains the definition of environmental governance used in the course. If students would like to read about an example of how the study of environmental governance (intended as a trans-disciplinary field) may help to address an environmental problem, they may read the part on deforestation. Otherwise, you might skip that and focus on the later part of the paper. Bennett, N.J., T. Satterfield. 2018. Environmental governance: A practical framework to guide design, evaluation, and analysis. Conservation Letters, https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12600 Supplementary Hall, C.M. 2011. A typology of governance and its implications for tourism policy analysis. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 19(4-5): 437-457.
3 The nature of environmental issues and stakeholders Readings Briggs L. nd. Tackling wicked problems: A public policy perspective. Australian Public Service. A very practical discussion of wicked problems in general as seen by one of the top public servants in Australia. Reed, M. S., A. Graves, N. Dandy, H. Posthumus, K. Hubacek, J. Morris, C. Prell, C. H. Quinn, and L. C. Stringer. 2009. Who's in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management 90(5): 1933-1949. One of the most cited papers on stakeholder analysis, presents key aspects of the method, very useful as a background to prepare stakeholder analysis.
4 Principles for public decision making and key instruments Readings O’Neill, J., Sustainability, welfare and value over time. In W.N. Adger and A. Jordan (eds). Governing Sustainability. Cambridge University Press, pp. 283-304. This chapter presents a good summary of the issues related to the substitutability of capitals and discounting. Common, M., S. Stagl 2005. Ecological Economics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge., Chapter 11 Environmental Policy Instruments pp 402-411 (escluding Section 11.3.1). Common, M., S. Stagl 2005. Ecological Economics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Section 10.4 The Precautionary Principle and Safe Minimum Standards, pp 389-394. These two readings present key environmental policy instruments that may be employed in the governance of the environment. ?Supplementary Duit, A., A. Lof. 2015. Dealing with a wicked problem? A dark tale of carnivore management in Sweden: 2007-2011.
5 Business and the environment Readings Gunningham, N. 2009. Shaping corporate environmental performance: a review. Environmental Policy and Governance 19(4): 215-231. This paper provides a good, broad and historical overview of the debate about corporate environmental responsibility. Dummett, K. 2006. Drivers for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). Environment, Development and Sustainability 8(3): 375-389. This paper presents the findings of a survey of the key factors that affect corporate environmental decision-making. Supplementary reading Porter, M., M. Kramer 2006. Strategy and Society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, December, pp 78-93.
6 NGOs and the environment Readings Gulbrandsen, L.H., 2009. The emergence and effectiveness of the Marine Stewardship Council. Marine Policy 33(4): 654-660. The promotion of certification schemes has become a significant focus of some NGOs. This paper discusses the cases of one of the main environmental certification schemes. WWF, 2012. Better Production for a Living Planet report. http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/how_we_work/businesses/transforming_markets/ A perspective on promoting sustainable business from a one of the main global NGOs.
7 Local government and cities Readings Larson, A.M., F. Soto, 2008. Decentralization of natural resource governance regimes, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33: 213-239. An excellent borad review of the topic, useful as an introduction to the literature and debate about decentralization. Tacconi, L. (2007). Decentralization, forests and livelihoods: theory and narrative. Global Environmental Change, 17(3-4): 338-348 Discusses the theory and hypotheses underlying the arguments in favour of decentralisation of natural resource management. Wild River, S. 2006. Australian local government attempts to deliver beneficial environmental outcomes. Local Environment 11:719-732. A paper that demonstrates the relevance of decentralization in the Australian ‘brown’ environmental management context. van der Heijden, S. 2014. Chapter 1 ‘Where are we today’ in Governance for urban sustainability and resilience: Responding to Climate Change and the Relevance of the Built Environment. Edward Elgar. A clear summary of key issues in urban governance by our guest speaker. Supplementary readings Irawan, S., L. Tacconi, I. Ring. (2013). Stakeholders’ incentives for land use change and REDD: the case of Indonesia. Ecological Economics, 87: 75-83. This paper is an example of the analysis required to understand the incentives faced by stakeholders, and the role of incentives in decentralized resource management. Wentworth Group 2012. Statement on changes to Commonwealth powers to protect Australia’s environment.
8 Corruption and anti-corruption in resource management Readings Tacconi, L., Williams, D.A. (2020) Corruption and anti-corruption in environmental and resource management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 45: 305-329. This paper provides a state of the art review of the theory about corruption and anti-corruption, and considers the extent to which corruption affects environmental and rescue management sectors. It then address possible anti-corruption policies and needs to future research. Supplementary readings Hanish, Q., Tsamenyi, M. 2009. Managing fisheries and corruption in the Pacific Islands region. Marine Policy 33(2): 386-392. Transparency International 2008. Global Corruption Report 2008: Corruption in the Water Sector
9 Accountability and transparency Readings Van Bodegom, A.J. 2011. Improving Accountability for NRM Sectors at Different Scales and Levels: An Exploration. Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen. This report presents an overview of the relevance of accountability in the context of the natural resource management sector. Gardner T.A. et al (2019) Transparency and sustainability in global commodity supply chains. World Development 121: 163-177. This paper addresses four key questions: (1) What is meant by supply chain transparency? (2) What is the relevance of supply chain transparency to supply chain sustainability governance? (3) What is the current status of supply chain transparency, and what are the strengths and weaknesses of existing initiatives? and (4) What propositions can be advanced for how transparency can have a positive transformative effect on the governance interventions that seek to strengthen sustainability outcomes? Kolstad, I. and A. Wiig. 2009. Is transparency the key to reducing corruption in resource-rich countries? World Development 37(3): 521-532. An in-depth discussion of transparency (including definition), and its possible role in addressing corruption. Supplementary readings Haufer, V. 2010. Disclosure as governance: The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and resource management in the developing world. Global Environmental Politics, 10(3): 53-73. Ralph Hamann and Paul Kapelus, 2004. Corporate Social Responsibility in mining in Southern Africa: Fair accountability or just greenwash? Development, 47(3), 85-92.
10 Community-based natural resource management and co-management Readings Blaikie, P. 2006. Is small really beautiful? Community-based natural resource management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development 34:1942-1957. A rather critical analysis of the viability of CBNRM approaches, grounded into two African countries. Ostrom, E. 2007. A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. PNAS 104(39): 15181-15187 Berkes, F. (2007). Community-based conservation in a globalized world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(39), 15188-15193. Discusses the need for multilevel analysis and implementation of CBNRM, and supports the use of a diagnostic approach within a pluralistic framework rather than a blueprint one. Armitage, D., et al. 2009. Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(2): 95-102. This paper presents the core features of adaptive co-management. Supplementary reading Ansell, C., A. Gash, 2008. Collaborative governance in theory and practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 18(4) 543-571. This paper presents a usefull summary of key variables that may affect the outcome of government-initiated governance activities. These factors may be used as a checklist to design this type of activities.
11 Law enforcement and compliance Readings Gupta, S. (2019). Environmental enforcement and compliance in developing countries: Evidence from India. World Development, 117: 313-327. Provides a review of the theory of environmental enforcement and compliance in the developing countries, and considers the case of air pollution in India. Duffy, R. et al. (2019) Why we must question the militarization of conservation. Biological Conservation, 232: 66-73. This paper sees law enforcement in conservation activities as the militarisation of conservation. It identifies and reflects on the problems militarisation produces for wildlife, for people living with wildlife and for those tasked with implementing militarised strategies.
12 International environmental agreements and the case of haze in SE Asia Readings Mitchell, R. B. 2003. International environmental agreements: a survey of their features, formation, and effects. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28: 429-461. This paper is a very conmprehensive review of the features, formation, and effects of international environmental agreements (IEAs). Hempel, Lamont. 1996. Chapter 5: The environmental policy-making process. In: Environmental Governance: The Global Challenge. Island Press, Washington, D.C. This chapter provides a very good summary of the policy-making process, which is relevant to the analysis of the negotiation and formation of IEAs. For this tutorial, the following papers should be read in advance: Tacconi, L. (2016). Preventing fires and haze in Southeast Asia. Nature Climate Change, 6(7) 640-643 Huay Lee J.S. et al 2016 Toward clearer skies: Challenges in regulating transboundary haze in Southeast Asia. Environmental Science & Policy 55 (2016) 87-95.

Assessment Summary

Assessment task Value Due Date Return of assessment Learning Outcomes
Stakeholders analysis paper 40 % 01/04/2021 16/04/2021 1,2
Podcast to present the draft essay 10 % 14/05/2021 21/05/2021 1,2,3
Essay 50 % 31/05/2021 02/07/2021 1,2,3

* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details


ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:

Assessment Requirements

The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website Students may choose not to submit assessment items through Turnitin. In this instance you will be required to submit, alongside the assessment item itself, hard copies of all references included in the assessment item.

Moderation of Assessment

Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.

Assessment Task 1

Value: 40 %
Due Date: 01/04/2021
Return of Assessment: 16/04/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,2

Stakeholders analysis paper

The details of the task and the assessment criteria are available on Wattle

Assessment Task 2

Value: 10 %
Due Date: 14/05/2021
Return of Assessment: 21/05/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

Podcast to present the draft essay

The details of the task and the assessment criteria are available on Wattle

Assessment Task 3

Value: 50 %
Due Date: 31/05/2021
Return of Assessment: 02/07/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3


The details of the task and the assessment criteria are available on Wattle

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a core part of our culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically. This means that all members of the community commit to honest and responsible scholarly practice and to upholding these values with respect and fairness. The Australian National University commits to embedding the values of academic integrity in our teaching and learning. We ensure that all members of our community understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with. The University has policies and procedures in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Visit the following Academic honesty & plagiarism website for more information about academic integrity and what the ANU considers academic misconduct. The ANU offers a number of services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. The Academic Skills and Learning Centre offers a number of workshops and seminars that you may find useful for your studies.

Online Submission

The ANU uses Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. While the use of Turnitin is not mandatory, the ANU highly recommends Turnitin is used by both teaching staff and students. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website.

Hardcopy Submission

For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records.

Late Submission

Late submission of assessment tasks without an extension are penalised at the rate of 5% of the possible marks available per working day or part thereof. Late submission of assessment tasks is not accepted after 10 working days after the due date, or on or after the date specified in the course outline for the return of the assessment item. Late submission is not accepted for take-home examinations.

Referencing Requirements

Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.

Extensions and Penalties

Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure The Course Convener may grant extensions for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.

Privacy Notice

The ANU has made a number of third party, online, databases available for students to use. Use of each online database is conditional on student end users first agreeing to the database licensor’s terms of service and/or privacy policy. Students should read these carefully. In some cases student end users will be required to register an account with the database licensor and submit personal information, including their: first name; last name; ANU email address; and other information. In cases where student end users are asked to submit ‘content’ to a database, such as an assignment or short answers, the database licensor may only use the student’s ‘content’ in accordance with the terms of service — including any (copyright) licence the student grants to the database licensor. Any personal information or content a student submits may be stored by the licensor, potentially offshore, and will be used to process the database service in accordance with the licensors terms of service and/or privacy policy. If any student chooses not to agree to the database licensor’s terms of service or privacy policy, the student will not be able to access and use the database. In these circumstances students should contact their lecturer to enquire about alternative arrangements that are available.

Distribution of grades policy

Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes. Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.

Support for students

The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).
EmPr Luca Tacconi
02 6125 7554

Research Interests

EmPr Luca Tacconi

Thursday 15:00 16:00
Thursday 15:00 16:00
EmPr Luca Tacconi
02 6125 7554

Research Interests

EmPr Luca Tacconi

Thursday 15:00 16:00
Thursday 15:00 16:00

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