• Class Number 6522
  • Term Code 3170
  • Class Info
  • Unit Value 6 units
  • Mode of Delivery Online
    • Dr William Boothby
    • Dr William Boothby
  • Class Dates
  • Class Start Date 13/09/2021
  • Class End Date 15/10/2021
  • Census Date 01/10/2021
  • Last Date to Enrol 14/09/2021
SELT Survey Results

Although the ideas of cyber warfare and of computer network attack are very new, there is growing awareness of the significant issues they raise in the modern world.

The Australian Government is not alone in acknowledging the threat of cyber attacks and the need to develop cyber security capability. Accordingly, there is a strong interest, particularly among Canberra communities, in anticipating potential legal issues that might arise in cyber warfare and in consolidating knowledge as to the applicability of existing rules of international law in this particular context.

An internationally renowned international humanitarian law and weapons law scholar who has recently participated in a central role in the preparation of the Tallinn Manual on the Law of Cyber Warfare, Dr Bill Boothby has kindly agreed to visit Australia to teach this course.

The course which will identify and assess the extent to which norms of existing law can properly be applied to the peculiarities of cyber operations. 

The course will draw on elements of general international law, the international law that governs the recourse to armed force and international humanitarian law, all in the specific context of cyber warfare.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

  1. Demonstrate an advanced understanding of various international law rules that apply to cyber warfare;
  2. Demonstrate cognitive skills to critically analyse the hypothetical cyber warfare scenarios;
  3. Critically analyse and evaluate international law issues arising from the employment of cyber operations; and
  4. Plan and execute complex legal research with independence in order to produce original scholarship with respect to legal issues arising in the context of cyber warfare.

Required Resources

The prescribed text for this course is Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, 2013, Cambridge University Press

Or, in the alternative

Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, 2017, Cambridge University Press

A list of additional materials will be available on Wattle to provide students with a list of texts from which to choose their own preferred additional reading and to assist with research.

Staff Feedback

Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:

  • written comments
  • verbal comments
  • feedback to whole class, groups, individuals, focus group etc

Student Feedback

ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.

Other Information

Task submission times refer to Canberra time (AEST/AEDT).

Extensions late submission and penalties: https://law.anu.edu.au/current-students/policies-procedures/extensions-late-submission-and-penalties

Deferred examination: http://www.anu.edu.au/students/program-administration/assessments-exams/deferred-examinations

Special consideration: http://www.anu.edu.au/students/program-administration/assessments-exams/special-assessment-consideration

Penalties for excess word length: https://law.anu.edu.au/current-students/policies-procedures/word-length-and-excess-word-penalties

Further Information about the course: is available from the course WATTLE page. Students are required to access the WATTLE site regularly throughout the course for any announcements relating to the course.

Class Schedule

Week/Session Summary of Activities Assessment
1 This is a semi-intensive course that will be delivered Monday 13 –17 September, 3pm to 8:30pm Canberra Time daily International law - revision What is cyber warfare – meanings of terms Examples of cyber warfare capabilities Ad bellum and in bello distinguished Quick run through targeting law Sovereignty – cyberspace as a common Jurisdiction over cyber equipment and activities Sovereign immunity
2 Article 2(4) of UN Charter and the unlawful use of cyber force Cyber armed attack, self defence, UN Security Council action Attribution and state responsibility Application of LOAC to cyber operations in an armed conflict Does cyber affect classification of an international armed conflict? What about a non-international armed Conflict?
3 Who may participate and with what consequences? Combatants and civilians What are cyber attacks? Conducting cyber attacks, distinction and precautions Weapons, means and methods of cyber warfare Deception, perfidy and espionage
4 Blockade Zones Persons and objects entitled to special protection Occupation law as applied to cyber Neutrality law applied to cyber Reprisals in cyber warfare? East vs West Presentation Outstanding questions and brief for end of course discussion
5 Is cyber challenging the spectrum of conflict Teacher-led discussion centered on pre-set problems Outstanding questions Course feedback Introduction of essay topics

Assessment Summary

Assessment task Value Due Date Return of assessment Learning Outcomes
Two blog posts (10% for each blog post) 20 % * 22/09/2021 1, 2, 3
Quiz 10 % 21/09/2021 * 1, 3
Think Piece 20 % 18/09/2021 01/10/2021 1, 2, 3
Research essay 50 % 15/10/2021 01/11/2021 1, 2, 3, 4

* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details


ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:

Assessment Requirements

The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the Academic Integrity . In rare cases where online submission using Turnitin software is not technically possible; or where not using Turnitin software has been justified by the Course Convener and approved by the Associate Dean (Education) on the basis of the teaching model being employed; students shall submit assessment online via ‘Wattle’ outside of Turnitin, or failing that in hard copy, or through a combination of submission methods as approved by the Associate Dean (Education). The submission method is detailed below.

Moderation of Assessment

Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.


For all courses taught in any mode (whether face to face or online), the ANU College of Law considers participation in the classes offered to be an important part of the educational experience of the graduate program. Students are expected to attend all classes.

If circumstances arise which are beyond a student’s control and they are unable to attend a class, the student should contact the Course Convenor in advance (where possible), so that the convenor can adjust their expectations in relation to numbers for that class. If it is not possible to give advance notice, students should send the convenor an email as soon as possible with evidence to support the reason for failure to attend. 

Assessment Task 1

Value: 20 %
Return of Assessment: 22/09/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3

Two blog posts (10% for each blog post)

Details of Task: The blog posts provide an opportunity for students to reflect on their learning in the first week of the course. The second blog post must refer to one of the other student's first blog posts; both to be up to 600 words long.

Nature of Task: The blog posts are compulsory. Non-completion of this task will result in a 0 for this assessment task. 

Word Limit: 1,200 words total; 600 words per blog 

Due Dates:

  • Blog post 1: due 5:00pm Tuesday 14 September 2021, (600 words max) to the relevant Discussion Forum in Wattle.
  • Blog post 2: due 5:00pm Wednesday 15 September 2021, (600 words max) to the relevant Discussion Forum in Wattle.

Due to the nature of the task, late submission or extension is not permitted.

Estimated Return Date: 22 September 2021.

Assessment Criteria:

  • Understanding of the material taught in the course;
  • Ability to make connections across the materials;
  • Clarity and conciseness; and
  • Expression

Assessment Task 2

Value: 10 %
Due Date: 21/09/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1, 3


Details of Task: Students must answer 20 multiple choice questions to be completed within 60 minutes. The questions will focus on knowledge of terminology arising from all topics in the course. 

Nature of the task: Compulsory. Failure to participate will result in 0 marks for this task. If you experience unavoidable and extenuating circumstances and cannot sit the quiz at the due date and time, you should apply for an extension to the College of Law student admin team here:


The College will give you one opportunity to sit the quiz, at the same time one week later. This will be your final opportunity to sit the quiz. 

Release: 9am, Monday 20 September 2021, via WATTLE. Students will have 24 hours to sit this test, with a window of 60 minutes once the attempt has started.

Due: 9am, Tuesday 21 September 2021, via WATTLE. Submissions after the due date (without an extension) will not be accepted.

Estimated return date: Once all students have completed the quiz.

Assessment Criteria: N/A

Assessment Task 3

Value: 20 %
Due Date: 18/09/2021
Return of Assessment: 01/10/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3

Think Piece

Details of Task: Student produces a think-piece of no more than 1,200 words including footnotes addressing a topic in the course that particularly interested the student. The think-piece is not intended to be a fully mature and researched piece. The think-piece demonstrates that the student has considered the material that has been taught, has developed a response on a specific issue and is able to articulate that response promptly.

Nature of Task: Compulsory

Approval of Topic: The student chooses the topic.

Length: 1,200 word maximum including footnotes

Due: 10am, Saturday 18 September 2021. Due to the nature of the task, late submission or extension is not permitted.

Submission: Task must be submitted to both a Turnitin and Wattle link on the course Wattle site.

Estimated return date: Friday 1 October 2021.

Assessment Criteria:

a) Understanding of the Issues

  • addresses the topic and covers all the important points
  • explains clearly the cyber warfare law issue being discussed
  • demonstrates ability to discuss the issue briefly and to put forward clearly the student’s responses/thoughts about the issues raised.

b) Communication of Ideas

  • clear development of the issues raised in the chose topic
  • logical and well-organised discussion
  • ideas/paragraphs linked coherently

c) Analysis

  • originality of ideas
  • complexity and insight in dealing with theory/ideas
  • suggestions for change where appropriate
  • interdisciplinary perspective where appropriate

d) Presentation and style

  • good use of structure, section headings and paragraphs
  • clarity and conciseness of expression, interesting and engaging of reader
  • use of appropriate terminology and correct grammar, syntax and spelling
  • adherence to word limit

Assessment Task 4

Value: 50 %
Due Date: 15/10/2021
Return of Assessment: 01/11/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4

Research essay

Details of Task: The Research Essay gives the student the opportunity to address a specific topic in some depth, to show that he/she has absorbed the taught material relating to that topic, to show that he/she has researched a range of approaches to that topic and is able to discuss them, to show that he/she can analyse a problem effectively and reach sustainable solutions expressed with clarity.

Approval of Topic: choice from a listing that will be available on the first day of the course.

Length: 3,000 words including footnotes

Due: 5:00pm, Friday 15 October 2021. Late submissions (without an extension) are permitted, although late penalties will apply.

Submission: Task must be submitted to both a Turnitin and Wattle link on the course Wattle site.

Estimated return date: Monday 1 November 2021.

Assessment Criteria:

a.      Understanding of the Issues

  • addresses the question and covers the salient, relevant and important points;
  • evidence of close consideration of the question and the research materials drawn on;
  • issues raised by the topic are clearly and concisely identified;
  • material chosen relates clearly to the topic and is analysed not just summarised or quoted extensively;

 b.      Communication and Development of Argument

  • shows a clear theme or argument;
  • argument(s) logical and well-organised;
  • ideas/paragraphs linked coherently; 

 c.       Argument/Analysis

  • originality of ideas and critical analysis of the material;
  • complexity and insight in dealing with theory/ideas;
  • suggestions for change where appropriate;
  • interdisciplinary perspective where appropriate;
  • addressing opposing arguments;
  • well-reasoned conclusions;

 d.      Research

  • research covering primary and secondary materials;
  • good organisation of sources and ability to synthesise all the research materials used;
  • use of theoretical material where appropriate;
  • range of research sources;
  • integration of material from research resources into the essay.

e.      Presentation, style and referencing

  • good use of structure, section headings and paragraphs;
  • clarity and conciseness of expression, content is interesting and engaging of reader;
  • use of appropriate terminology and correct grammar, syntax and spelling;
  • full and accurate footnotes together with a bibliography;
  • style according to Australian Guide to Legal Citation where appropriate;
  • adherence to word limit.

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a core part of the ANU culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically, committing to honest and responsible scholarly practice and upholding these values with respect and fairness.

The ANU commits to assisting all members of our community to understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to be familiar with the academic integrity principle and Academic Misconduct Rule, uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with.

The Academic Misconduct Rule is in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Very minor breaches of the academic integrity principle may result in a reduction of marks of up to 10% of the total marks available for the assessment. The ANU offers a number of online and in person services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. Visit the Academic Skills website for more information about academic integrity, your responsibilities and for assistance with your assignments, writing skills and study.

Online Submission

You will be required to electronically sign a declaration as part of the submission of your assignment. Please keep a copy of the assignment for your records. Unless an exemption has been approved by the Associate Dean (Education) submission must be through Turnitin.

Hardcopy Submission

For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records.

Late Submission

Individual assessment tasks may or may not allow for late submission. Policy regarding late submission is detailed below:

  • Late submission not permitted. If submission of assessment tasks without an extension after the due date is not permitted, a mark of 0 will be awarded.
  • Late submission permitted. Late submission of assessment tasks without an extension are penalised at the rate of 5% of the possible marks available per working day or part thereof. Late submission of assessment tasks is not accepted after 10 working days after the due date, or on or after the date specified in the course outline for the return of the assessment item. Late submission is not accepted for take-home examinations.

Referencing Requirements

Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.

Extensions and Penalties

Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure. Extensions may be granted for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.

Privacy Notice

The ANU has made a number of third party, online, databases available for students to use. Use of each online database is conditional on student end users first agreeing to the database licensor’s terms of service and/or privacy policy. Students should read these carefully. In some cases student end users will be required to register an account with the database licensor and submit personal information, including their: first name; last name; ANU email address; and other information.
In cases where student end users are asked to submit ‘content’ to a database, such as an assignment or short answers, the database licensor may only use the student’s ‘content’ in accordance with the terms of service – including any (copyright) licence the student grants to the database licensor. Any personal information or content a student submits may be stored by the licensor, potentially offshore, and will be used to process the database service in accordance with the licensors terms of service and/or privacy policy.
If any student chooses not to agree to the database licensor’s terms of service or privacy policy, the student will not be able to access and use the database. In these circumstances students should contact their lecturer to enquire about alternative arrangements that are available.

Distribution of grades policy

Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes.

Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.

Support for students

The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).

Dr William Boothby

Research Interests

Air Commodore Bill Boothby (Retd) served for 30 years in the Royal Air Force Legal Branch, retiring as Deputy Director of Legal Services in July 2011. In 2009 he took a Doctorate at the Europa Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder) in Germany and published ‘Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict’ through OUP in the same year. His second book, ‘The Law of Targeting’, appeared with the same publisher in 2012. He has been a member of Groups of Experts that addressed Direct Participation in Hostilities, that produced the HPCR Manual of the Law of Air and Missile Warfare and that produced the Tallinn Manual on the Law of Cyber Warfare. His third book, addressing Conflict Law, was published in 2014; the second edition of Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict was published in March 2016. In 2018 he has published, with Professor W Heintschel von Heinegg, a Commentary on the US DoD Law of War Manual and has produced an edited volume on New Technologies and the Law in War and Peace. He teaches at the University of Southern Denmark and at the Geneva Centre for Security Policy. He lectures and speaks widely on international law issues.

Dr William Boothby

By Appointment
Dr William Boothby
+61 2 6125 3483

Research Interests

Dr William Boothby

By Appointment

Responsible Officer: Registrar, Student Administration / Page Contact: Website Administrator / Frequently Asked Questions