- Class Number 4552
- Term Code 3130
- Class Info
- Unit Value 6 units
- Topic Online
- Mode of Delivery Online
- Dr Azad Singh Bali
- Dr Azad Singh Bali
- Class Dates
- Class Start Date 22/02/2021
- Class End Date 28/05/2021
- Census Date 31/03/2021
- Last Date to Enrol 01/03/2021
The course takes a comparative and thematic approach to issues in public sector management, and encourages students to consider their relevance to their own countries and workplaces. The course gives particular emphasis to issues of public sector reform and draws on leading-edge research by academic staff at the Crawford School
Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
- understand the key concepts, ideas, theories and terminology associated with public administration and public sector management;2 understand the main issues in key theoretical debates in public administration and public sector management.
- .apply relevant concepts and theories to individual cases in a comparative context. ;
- understand the main principles in public sector reform and apply them to individual cases.
- demonstrate improved capacity for critical analysis as well as for clear and effective communication, both written and oral.
- demonstrate improved capacity to locate and critically evaluate relevant academic sources.
There is no prescribed text book. Readings for each lecture are assigned and will be available online. Students may find references to the following introductory textbooks useful.
General Reading List
1. Alford, J. and O’Flynn, J. (2012) Rethinking Public Service Delivery: Managing with External Providers, Palgrave, Basingstoke.
2. Bovaird, T and Loffler, E (2003) Public Management and Governance, Routledge, London (UK focus).
3. Hughes, O. (2012) Public Management & Administration, 4th edition, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndsmills, Basingstoke (international coverage).
4. Moore, M. (1995) Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (US focus).
5. Osborne, S. (2010) The New Public Governance, Routledge, London (international focus). Rainey, H. (2009) Understanding & Managing Public Organizations, 4th edition, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (USA focus).
6. Van der Wal, Z. (2017). The 21st century public manager. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Staff FeedbackStudents will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
- Written comments
- Verbal comments
- Feedback to the whole class, to groups, to individuals, focus groups
Student FeedbackANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.
Welcome to Public Management. There have been widespread changes to the nature and operation of public sector activity around the world over the last few decades and these have posed significant challenges and opportunities for public sector managers. This course provides a forum to debate, interrogate, and analyse these challenges. The notion of a public sector manager is not necessarily a common one. In fact in many countries it is more common to refer to people working in the public sector as public servants, civil servants, administrators, or bureaucrats. Indeed, even using the term management can be controversial when talking about what happens in the public sector and public sector organisations: in many countries it is common to talk of administration. A standard definition of management is “the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organising, leading and controlling” (Samson and Daft, 2003:9). This implies that a manager is someone who uses resources (human, financial, technological etc.) to achieve goals through the processes of planning, organising, leading and controlling. In this course we will position public sector managers as people who do this in public sector organisations. In this course, participants will have an opportunity to reflect critically on principles and topics studied previously and to draw on their professional experience. The course will involve detailed examination of a series of case studies from the field of public management. This may involve students taking on the role of a manager and deciding on a course of action informed by relevant theory and practice; alternatively students will have the opportunity to look back at decisions already made and discuss their merits: would they have done things differently? Why or why not? Cases selected for the course have been chosen to highlight general principles of public management. We will also be making frequent comparisons between different systems and countries, drawing in part on the diversity of experience among class members.
I want to acknowledge and celebrate the First Australians on whose traditional lands we meet, and pay our respect to the elders past, present and emerging. I also want to acknowledge that this course draws on material and pedagogical tools developed by Professor Richard Mulgan at the Australian National University and by Professor Janine O’Flynn at the Australia and New Zealand School of Government.
Azad Singh Bali
Azad is a Senior Lecturer in Pubic Policy, and holds a joint appointment at the Crawford School of Public Policy and the School of Politics and International Relations at the Australian National University. His research and teaching interests lie at the intersection of policy design and social policy in Asia. Some of this research has been published in Policy & Society, Public Policy & Administration, Social Policy & Administration, and the Australian Journal of Public Administration among others. His forthcoming co-authored manuscript The Struggle for Universal Healthcare in Asia (CUP) is a comparative study of the design, governance and politics of health reform. Immediately prior to the ANU, Azad held fellowships at the University of Melbourne and at Murdoch University. He has consulted with the Asian Development Bank Institute on pension and tax reform, and worked with over 500 civil servants in executive education and training programs on social policy in Asia. Azad also serves as Associate Editor for Policy Design & Practice, an open-access journal focusing on knowledge translation and addressing contemporary policy challenges.
|Week/Session||Summary of Activities||Assessment|
|1||Lecture 1: Introduction This lecture will provide an introduction to the course, define public management, what some of the key analytical questions that are discussed, and provide an overview of the changing operating context (economic, social, and political) that public managers have to navigate. There will be no tutorials conducted this week. Reading: *Painter, M & Peters, BG, ‘Administrative traditions in comparative perspective’ in M Painter & BG Peters (eds), Tradition and public administration, Palgrave, Basingstoke, pp. 19-30. *van Der Wal (2017) Trends and Drivers, Chapter 3, in 21st Century Public Manager. Palgrave|
|2||Lecture 2: Key Debates in Public Management - Part 1 In weeks 2&3 we will explore key ideas in public management, and how these help understand contemporary public sector management. The following themes/ideas/concepts will be canvassed. Our goal is to use these as a lens to better understand contemporary challenges public managers face, or contemporary challenges in the delivery of public services. Politics-administration dichotomy, Old and new public administration; New public management; New public service/governance public value * van Der Wal (2017) Old versus New, Chapter 2 *Peters, Guy (2015) Case Studies in Policy Coordination. Pursuing Horizontal Management. University of Kansas Press. *O’Flynn The Cult of Collaboration. The Australian Journal of Public Administration Osborne, S 2006, ‘The new public governance?’, Public Management Review vol. 8, no.3, pp.377-87. Osborne, D & Gaebler, T 1992, Reinventing government, Addison-Wesley, Reading, pp.1-24. Denhardt, R.B. and Denhardt, J.V. (2000) The New Public Service: Serving Rather than Steering, Public Administration Review, 60 (6), pp. 549-559.||Guest Speaker: Dr Kris Hartley (via Zoom) Discussion Questions a) What are the central tenants of new public management? Can you think of any examples where you see the use of these principles in how services are delivered? b) What is the rationale or need for policy coordination? Can you think of examples of how poor coordination impedes policy outcomes in your country? How can this be improved? What prevents policy coordination?|
|3||Lecture 3: Key Debates in Public Management - Part 2 In Week 3, we continue with some of the key debates. We will interrogate these ideas/debates by applying these to on contemporary examples. Specifically, we will look at some of the policy responses to the pandemic in Australia and some of the challenges they raised. ABC News (2020) Victorian hotel quarantine inquiry report unable to determine who made private security decision. Available online https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-12-21/final-victorian-hotel-quarantine-inquiry-report-released/13002882 O’Flynn, J. (2020). Confronting the big challenges of our time: making a difference during and after COVID-19. Public Management Review, 1-20. Bromfield, N., & McConnell, A. (2020). Two routes to precarious success: Australia, New Zealand, COVID-19 and the politics of crisis governance. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 0020852320972465. Chicago||Case Study Our case study this week will focus on the Hotel Quarantine saga in the state of Victoria, Australia. Please read the executive summary of the Hotel Quarantine Inquiry. https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/file_uploads/0387_RC_Covid-19_Final_Report_Volume_1_v21_Digital_77QpLQH8.pdf|
|4||Lecture 4 Organization and Values in Public Management This lecture will focus on the key difference between public and private organizations, and the different values that govern these organizations. We will pay specific attention to Management values - economy, efficiency and effectiveness and their relation to inputs, outputs and outcomes; equity, fairness; legality and compliance: the public interest and public value; good governance and the World Bank indicators. The case study for this week is the privatization of the CSL. Mintzberg, H. (1996) Managing Government, Governing Management – Balancing the Private and Public Sectors, Harvard Business Review, 74 (3), pp.75-83. Lienert, I. (2009). Where does the public sector end and the private sector begin? (No. 9-122). International Monetary Fund. Alford, J. (2002) Defining the Client in the Public Sector: A Social Exchange Perspective, Public Administration Review, 62 (3), pp. 337-346. *Moore, M.H. (1995) Organizational Strategy in the Public Sector, in Moore, M. (1995) Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 57-102. *Scott, RS & Davis, GF 2007, Organizations and organizing, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 19-34. *Case Study: Privatization of the CSL||Case Study: Privatisation of the CSL Should the CSL have been privatised? Why/why not? • What rationales could be used to support and oppose the privatisation of the CSL? • What business should government be in? And, how could you justify government involvement in this area? • Is private enterprise more efficient that public enterprise? Why/why not? • Generally speaking, what potential benefits might a government monopoly provide? • Generally speaking, what potential benefits might market provision provide? • What future challenges may emerge here?|
|5||?Lecture 5 The Role of the Public Manager in the 21st Century In this lecture we will re-visit the fundamental role of the public manager and how it has evolved over time. A key emphasis in this lecture would be understanding the role of the public manager in the 21st century, and the skills they are required to bring to the job. *Dickinson, H., & Sullivan, H. (2014). Imagining the 21st century public service work *Van Der Wal (2017) Chapter 12, the 21st Century Public Manager Di Francesco, M. (2020). A signal failure: Sports grants, public servants, and traffic lights. Australian Journal of Public Administration. Boin, A., & Hart, P. T. (2003). Public leadership in times of crisis: mission impossible?. Public administration review, 63(5), 544-553.||Guest Speaker: Paul 't Hart (TBC) (via Zoom) The case study for this week will explore the Sports-Rorts Saga (SRS) in Australia in 2019 (summarised in Di Francesco). Our goal here is to use this example as a launching pad to discuss the role of the public servant. To the extent possible, participants will be encouraged to share examples that canvass themes brought to light by the SRS.|
|6||Lecture 6 Managing Relationships : Contracting, Commissioning, and Partnerships This lecture explores a key theme in public management: procurement. The lecture and case studies will cover issues such as government decisions to procure, contract, commission, and use networks to deliver public services. Alford, J. and O’Flynn, J. (2012) Outsourcing and Contracting to Other Organizations (chapter 4) and Partnering and Collaboration with Other Organizations (chapter 5), in Rethinking Public Service Delivery: Managing with External Providers, Palgrave, Basingstoke. Blondal, J.R. (2005) International Experience Using Outsourcing, Public-Private Partnerships, and Vouchers, IBM Centre for The Business of Government, Market-Based Government Series, Washington.||Case Study: The Management of Prison Accommodation using Public Private Partnerships (Available online at https://www.audit.vic.gov.au/report/management-prison-accommodation-using-public-private-partnerships?section=) Case Study: On Solid Ground (Available online at https://www.anzsog.edu.au/resource-library/case-library/on-solid-ground-using-a-public-private-partnership-to-build-a-new-flagship-hospital-in-adelaide-cc-2019-205-1 Case Study Questions How should PPPs be evaluated? What criteria can we use to ensure that governments get 'value' from partnerships they enter in?|
|7||Lecture 7 Managing Administrative Burdens in Accessing Public Services The issue of administrative burden or the costs of interacting with the government in accessing public services is discussed. What gives rise to these ‘burdens’ and how they can be addressed? Students will be expected to provide examples of the relative ease with which public services can be accessed in your country. Moynihan, D. P., Herd, P., & Ribgy, E. (2016). Policymaking by other means: Do states use administrative barriers to limit access to Medicaid?. Administration & Society, 48(4), 497-524. Herd, P., & Moynihan, D. P. (2019). Administrative burden: Policymaking by other means. Russell Sage Foundation. Chapter 4 and Chapter 9||Guest Speaker: TBC|
|8||Lecture 8 Frameworks to Understand Policy Capabilities This lecture focuses on a key theme in contemporary public management: capacity. We will define capacity, and develop a framework to understand the types of capacities (analytical, operational, and political) that are used in service delivery. The role of critical capacities and how their absence can undermine a program are discussed. These themes are brought to the fore through a case study on police reform in Afghanistan. Wu, X., Ramesh, M., & Howlett, M. (2015). Policy capacity: A conceptual framework for understanding policy competences and capabilities. Policy and Society, 34(3-4), 165-171. Bali, A. S., & Ramesh, M. (2018). Policy capacity: A design perspective. In Routledge handbook of policy design (pp. 331-344). Routledge. Case Study: Building a Force for Good||Guest Speaker: Michael Howlett (via Zoom) Case Study: Building a Force for Good What factors impeded reform efforts? What are the specific capacity deficits that you can identify? How relevant is the notion of 'critical capacities' in public sector reform?|
|9||Lecture 9 What does Accountability mean in Contemporary Public Management? In this lecture we explore the meanings of ‘accountability’ and its differences from ‘responsibility’ and ‘responsiveness’; accountability and transparency; structures of public sector accountability; contrasts with the private sector; accountability in networks; accountability and trust. Mulgan, R. (2000) Comparing Accountability in the Public and Private Sectors, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 59(1), pp. 87-97 Kim, P 2009, ’Enhancing public accountability for developing countries: major constraints and strategies’, Australian Journal of Public Administration vol. 68, supp.no.1, pp. 89-100. Case Study: Donald Rumsfeld and Prisoner Abuse at Abu Ghraib||Guest Speaker: Dr Michael Di Francesco will engage with participants for about 30 minutes on issues related to public accountability. Case Study: Donald Rumsfeld and Prisoner Abuse at Abu Ghraib What factors explain the crisis? • To whom are the actors accountable? For what are they responsible? • How might the actors seek to address these crises? • How might changes in the way that public organisations operate have contributed to these outcomes? • What lessons might be taken from these experiences in terms of how public organisations are managed?|
|10||Lecture 10: Public Management During Times of Crises (A): The role of evidence and policy advisors This lecture will look at the role of evidence, the politics associated with it, and the role of policy advisors in the context of a crisis. McConnell, A., & Hart, P. T. (2019). Inaction and public policy: understanding why policymakers ‘do nothing’. Policy Sciences, 52(4), 645-661. Cairney, P. (2016). The politics of evidence-based policy making. Springer. McConnell, A. (2020). Evaluating Success and Failure in Crisis Management. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.||No Case Study. Guest Speaker: Professor Colin Talbot.|
|11||Lecture 11: Public Management During Times of Crises (B) This lecture will look at country-specific responses to the global pandemic, with the aim to drawing broad themes that are relevant from a public management perspective. We will look at case studies from China, India, Australia and Singapore. These cases will be discussed in a comparative context. China He, A. J., Shi, Y., & Liu, H. (2020). Crisis governance, Chinese style: distinctive features of china’s response to the Covid-19 pandemic. Policy Design and Practice, 1-17. Chicago Mei, C. (2020). Policy style, consistency and the effectiveness of the policy mix in China’s fight against COVID-19. Policy and Society, 39(3), 309-325. India Pradeep Taneja and Azad Singh Bali (2021). India's Domestic and Foreign Policy Responses to the Pandemic. Round Table Azad Singh Bali and Daniel Beland (2021) How Federal Institution's Shaped India's Responses to the Pandemic. Singapore Woo, J. J. (2020). Policy capacity and Singapore’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy and Society, 39(3), 345-362. Chicago Australia Bromfield, N., & McConnell, A. (2020). Two routes to precarious success: Australia, New Zealand, COVID-19 and the politics of crisis governance. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 0020852320972465.||Case study: We will explore country-specific responses to the pandemic along key dimensions. (i) policy coordination (ii) policy capacity (iii) policy learning (iv) leadership and stewardship Guest Speakers: JJ Woo, Alex He, and Sarah Bales who will speak to country specific responses (via Zoom)|
|12||Lecture 10 Thinking Comparatively About Public Management This lecture introduces students to frameworks to compare public management practices across different countries and contexts. The concluding case study brings together key themes engaged in this course. “Comparative Public Management: A Framework for Analysis” O'Toole, L. J., & Meier, K. J. (2017). In Comparative public management: Why National, Environmental, and Organizational Context Matters. Georgetown University Press. Compton, M., & Hart, P. T. (Eds.). (2019). Great Policy Successes. Oxford University Press. (Chapter 1)||Concluding Case Study: Cave Creek Disaster (this case study pulls together key themes in this course) What factors explain the crisis? • To whom are the actors accountable? For what are they responsible? • How might the actors seek to address these crises? • How might changes in the way that public organisations operate have contributed to these outcomes? • What lessons might be taken from these experiences in terms of how public organisations are managed?|
The course is organised using a combination of interactive lectures and case-based learning. For some of the lectures, we have guest speakers who will interact with participants in this course for about 30-45 minutes. Tutorials will be organised on most weeks that we meet (the final schedule to be determined once enrolment numbers are finalised). The tutorials will provide an opportunity for you to engage further with the key themes and debates in the assigned readings. Your participation in the tutorial is optional but strongly recommended. The tutorial is conducted by a tutor.
|Assessment task||Value||Due Date||Return of assessment||Learning Outcomes|
|Continuous Assessment: Class Participation||10 %||*||*||1-6|
|Scaffolding Term Paper 1 - 1000 words||15 %||22/03/2021||10/04/2021||1, 3, 5|
|Scaffolding Term Paper 2 - 1000 words||25 %||30/04/2021||15/05/2021||1, 3, 5|
|Scaffolding Term Paper 3 - 4000 words||50 %||14/06/2021||02/07/2021||1, 2, 4, 5, 6|
* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details
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Assessment RequirementsThe ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website Students may choose not to submit assessment items through Turnitin. In this instance you will be required to submit, alongside the assessment item itself, hard copies of all references included in the assessment item.
Moderation of AssessmentMarks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.
Assessment Task 1
Learning Outcomes: 1-6
Continuous Assessment: Class Participation
This is a graduate course in public sector management. I expect participants to have read the readings, and come prepared to class to exchange ideas, share examples, and participate actively in the case discussion. There will be opportunities for you to participate in a respectful, collegial, and cordial environment. 10 percent of your grade is determined by the extent to which you participate and contribute to collective learning. Please note that if you can't attend a lecture or a tutorial for pressing reasons, that is fine. Please let your instructor know. There will be multiple avenues through which you can participate in the learning activities of this course.
Assessment Task 2
Learning Outcomes: 1, 3, 5
Scaffolding Term Paper 1 - 1000 words
The main assessment for this course is an academic essay where you explore a contemporary public management problem, document three options to address the problem, and recommend a course of action that will best address the problem. This however can be challenging to write and daunting to think about. Please note I want you to think about a public management problem such as issues around corruption, accountability, procurement, contracting, motivation. Please don't write essays on reducing poverty or solving traffic congestion - unless you canvass these wicked public policy problems in terms of a public management issue. Talk to your instructor or tutor if you need more guidance. To make this more manageable, as well as give you feedback through the course, I have decided to break the main assessment task into into three separate papers - each that feed into the next.
The first of these scaffolding tasks is a 1000 word essay explaining (i) what the public management problem is (ii) why is it a problem (iii) provide some policy context/background (iv) and what is being done to address the problem. A marking rubric will be provided. This assessment task is worth 15 percent of your total grade. Please follow the rubric carefully.
Assessment Task 3
Learning Outcomes: 1, 3, 5
Scaffolding Term Paper 2 - 1000 words
The second scaffolding paper is a 1000 word essay highlighting the theoretical public management framework that you will apply to better understand the problem you have chosen in the previous assessment task. For example, is it policy capacity; public value; new public management; ?The focus on this essay will be on a) summarising the he framework/concept/idea; b) explaining why its relevant to your case; c) how you will operationalise it. A marking rubric will be provided. This assessment task is worth 25 percent of your total grade.
Assessment Task 4
Learning Outcomes: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6
Scaffolding Term Paper 3 - 4000 words
In the final paper, you will build on the previous two assessment tasks. Students are required to submit a 4000 word academic paper which outlines the key public management problem, demonstrates how the theoretical framework/concept is applied to study the problem, propose three policy alternatives that can be used to address or ameliorate the problem, and conclude by explaining which is the most appropriate course of action to pursue and why. Please note that you can use text from the previous two assessment tasks. A marking rubric will be provided. This assessment task is worth 50 percent of your final grade.
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public policy in Asia; comparative public policy; policy design; health policy; social policy
Dr Azad Singh Bali