- Class Number 4171
- Term Code 3230
- Class Info
- Unit Value 6 units
- Mode of Delivery In-Person and Online
- AsPr Marcus Mietzner
- AsPr Marcus Mietzner
- Class Dates
- Class Start Date 21/02/2022
- Class End Date 27/05/2022
- Census Date 31/03/2022
- Last Date to Enrol 28/02/2022
This course surveys the main issues of Southeast Asian security, giving due attention to traditional concerns with interstate conflict as well as non-traditional themes like the economy and the quality of democratic governance. It also provides a grounding in the Cold War-era conflicts that shaped the region as we know it today. The central focus, however, is on contemporary internal armed conflict rooted in processes of state formation and state decay (for instance, ethnic conflict in Myanmar, separatist violence in Indonesia or the attempts to create an autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao in the Philippines). Key internal conflicts affecting the human security of millions of Southeast Asians, as well as near neighbours like Australia, will be analysed in their unique historical and cultural context, and related to cross-cutting questions with broad inter-disciplinary significance negotiating views from above and below, from inside and outside.
Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
- Possess a deep understanding of the historical and conceptual foundations of Southeast Asian security.
- Possess knowledge of key concepts for analysing security issues and violent conflict in Southeast Asia. This will include understanding of the main schools of thought in security studies, but also of important literature in conflict studies.
- Apply these concepts in analysing Southeast Asian security and the most current conflicts.
- Conduct research independently and effectively, especially by identifying scholarly acceptable sources and materials.
- Express themselves clearly and scholarly in verbal and written formats.
This course draws from more than two decades of research experience in Southeast Asia. The convener has studied Southeast Asian politics, and especially military politics, since the 1990s.
Additional Course Costs
Examination Material or equipment
The examination will be in the form of a take-home exam. Normal access to online and other resources is allowed.
Since some elements of this course are delivered online, a stable internet connection is recommended. However, students without such a stable connection are given the opportunity to submit written commentaries on the class readings in order to substitute for direct contributions in class.
While it will be sufficient to read the allocated articles each week, it would be useful for you to read Donald E. Weatherbee, International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2014). We will read chapters from the book, but reading it in full will benefit you.
Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
+ written comment sheets on presentation and all writings (except take-home exam)
+ verbal feedback in class and consultation hours
+ for the take-home exam: marks announced on Wattle.
ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.
|Week/Session||Summary of Activities||Assessment|
|1||COURSE INTRODUCTION 21 February The introduction will provide an overview over the course structure, the assignments and other basic information.|
|2||SECURITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: CONCEPTS AND ACTORS 28 February After shortly discussing the parameters of security studies, the first lecture will introduce Southeast Asia as a political and security entity. It will give an overview of the main regional actors in the region, and present snapshots of the subjects to be analysed in this semester. Required reading: Donald E. Weatherbee, “Chapter 1: Introduction - The What and the Why of Southeast Asia”, in Donald E. Weatherbee, International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2014), pp. 19-38. Recommended reading: Alan Collins, “Introduction: What is Security Studies?”, in Alan Collins (editor), Contemporary Security Studies (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp.2-3.|
|3||DECOLONISATION AND THE COLD WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 7 March This week we look at the process of state formation in Southeast Asia after the Second World War. The end of the war triggered a process of decolonisation in the region, which led to the emergence of nation states as the main players in Southeast Asian security. As with most international developments at that time, the evolution of Southeast Asia’s regional security system was heavily influenced by the Cold War, with both the United States and the Soviet Union trying to pull the region to their sides. Required reading: Robert J. McMahon, “The United States and Southeast Asia in an Era of Decolonization, 1945-1965,” in Marc Frey, Ronald W. Pruessen and Tan Tai Yong (editors), The Transformation of Southeast Asia: International Perspectives on Decolonization (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2003), pp.213-225. Recommended reading: Donald E. Weatherbee, “Chapter 3: “The Cold War in Southeast Asia”, in Donald E. Weatherbee, International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2014), pp. 67-88.|
|4||ASEAN’s CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 14 March Today we discuss the emergence of ASEAN as a key player in Southeast Asian security. While often detracted as marginal and ineffective, ASEAN has developed into an important forum to discuss security matters that affect all Southeast Asian states. In order to understand the way ASEAN functions today, we analyse the circumstances of its creation as well as its involvement in contemporary security problems in the region. The organization's attempt to address the post-coup conflicts in Myanmar will serve as a case study of ASEAN's abilities and deficiencies. Required reading: Huong Le Thu, David Engel and Hillary Mansour (2021), Myanmar’s Coup, ASEAN’s Crisis: And the Implications for Australia, ASPI, November 2021. Recommended reading: David Martin Jones and Nicole Jenne, “Weak States' Regionalism: ASEAN and the Limits of Security Cooperation in Pacific Asia.” International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, Volume 16, Issue 2, May 2016, pp. 209–240.||Since 14 March is a holiday, the lecture will be pre-recorded and posted online, so that students can watch it anytime before the tutorials. The date of the pre-recording will be announced in due course to allow students who wish to participate in the online recording of the lecture can do so.|
|5||INTERNATIONAL ACTORS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 21 March This lecture introduces the main international actors in Southeast Asian security. Discussing the strategic interests in and diverse approaches to Southeast Asia, we will look at the role of the United States, China, Japan, India and Australia, as well as multinational organisations like the UN or the World Bank. The analysis will point to important economic and political reasons behind the engagement of each country or organization in the Southeast Asian region, with the rivalry between the United States and China given special attention. Required reading: David Shambaugh (2018), U.S.-China Rivalry in Southeast Asia: Power Shift or Competitive Coexistence?, International Security 42(4): 85-127. Recommended reading: Ja Ian Chong, “Deconstructing Order in Southeast Asia in the Age of Trump”, Contemporary Southeast Asia, Volume 39, Number 1, April 2017, pp. 29-35.||FIRST SHORT PAPER DUE: 21 MARCH, 23.55.|
|6||ESSAY WRITING GUIDELINES 28 March In this lecture (and in the tutorials), we will discuss essay writing guidelines in preparation for the research essay assignment.|
|7||TERRORISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 18 April Since the Indonesian Christmas Bombings in 2000, jihadist terrorism has become a serious and regular threat in Southeast Asia. After initially reluctant to act, governments in the region understood after the Bali attack in 2002 – which was one of the largest terrorist incidents in modern history – that they needed to increase their counter-terrorism capacities. In this week's discussions, we try to explore the motivations of terrorist groups and individuals, and analyze the impact of counter-terrorism measures on Southeast Asia's security and political landscape. Required reading: Julie Chernov Hwang and Kirsten E. Schulze (2018), Why They Join: Pathways into Indonesian Jihadist Organizations, Terrorism and Political Violence 30(6): 911-932. Recommended reading: Daniel Finnbogason and Isak Svensson, “The Missing Jihad: Why Have There Been No Jihadist Civil Wars in Southeast Asia?”, The Pacific Review, Volume 31, 2018, Issue 1, pp. 96-115.||Since 18 April is a holiday, the lecture will be pre-recorded and posted online, so that students can watch it anytime before the tutorials. The date of the pre-recording will be announced in due course to allow students who wish to participate in the online recording of the lecture can do so.|
|8||ONGOING INSURGENCIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: SOUTHERN THAILAND AND THE PHILIPPINES 25 April Today we discuss two of the most complex ongoing insurgencies in Southeast Asia: the violence in Southern Thailand and the Mindanao conflict in the Southern Philippines. For decades, militants groups in the Muslim area of Mindanao have fought for independence (or, alternatively, more autonomy) from the mostly Catholic Philippines. Similarly, Islamist activists and cells have launched a violent campaign for independence from the predominantly Buddhist kingdom of Thailand. We look at the various attempts to resolve these conflicts, and try to understand why these efforts have so far been unsuccessful in the case of Southern Thailand, and peace arrangements remain highly volatile in Mindanao. Required reading: Nicole Jenne and Jun Yan Chang, “Hegemonic Distortions: The Securitisation of the Insurgency in Thailand's Deep South,” TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia, January 2019, pp. 1-24. Recommended reading: Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs, Kristine Höglund and Mélida Jiménez (2021), Autonomous Peace? The Bangsamoro Region in the Philippines Beyond the 2014 Agreement, Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, First Published January 24, 2021.||Since 25 April is a holiday, the lecture will be pre-recorded and posted online, so that students can watch it anytime before the tutorials. The date of the pre-recording will be announced in due course to allow students who wish to participate in the online recording of the lecture can do so. SECOND SHORT PAPER DUE: 26 APRIL, 23.55.|
|9||ACEH: A SUCCESSFULLY CONTAINED SEPARATIST CONFLICT? 2 May This lecture will focus on the separatist conflict in Aceh, which seems to have been peacefully resolved through the Helsinki accord signed in August 2005. Up until that time, the rebel group GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, Free Aceh Movement) had fought a 30-year war for secession from Indonesia. The lecture will discuss the reasons for the emergence of GAM, as well as the reasons for the success of Helsinki. Required reading: Michael Morfit, “The Road to Helsinki: The Aceh Agreement and Indonesia's Democratic Development”, International Negotiation - A Journal of Theory and Practice 12, Spring 2007. Recommended reading: Veronica Strandh and Benni Yusriza (2021), War Widows’ Everyday Understandings of Peace in Aceh, Indonesia, Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, First Published January 8, 2021.|
|10||ETHNIC CONFLICT IN NATION STATES: MALAYSIA AND MYANMAR 9 May This lecture contrasts two very different approaches to managing ethnic diversity in Southeast Asia. On the one hand, we will discuss Malaysia, which has traditionally tried to contain ethnic tensions by integrating all groups into a multi-ethnic government alliance – whether in the long-ruling Barisan Nasional or other post-2018 formations. Myanmar, on the other hand, has used a wide range of strategies (few of them successful), ranging from military force, cease fire agreements, peace negotiations and informal arrangements with local drug and war lords. These conflicts have now fused with the fight against the junta that took charge (again) in 2021. Required reading: Samuel Hmung (2021), New Friends, Old enemies: Politics of Ethnic Armed Organisations after the Myanmar Coup, New Mandala. Recommended reading: Noriyuki Segawa, “Double-layered Ethnic Politics in Malaysia: National Integration, Ethnic Unity and Social Stability,” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, Volume 55, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 63-81.|
|11||SECURITY AND DEMOCRACY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 16 May So far, the course has focused on conventional security threats, domestic conflicts and the strategic interests of global powers in Southeast Asia. But the state of democracy in the region is as important for the stability of Southeast Asian security as the volatility of inter-state, ethnic, social and religious tensions. This lecture analyses the interrelationship between the effectiveness of democratic institutions, the strength of civil society and the level of security in Southeast Asian states. Required reading: Thomas Pepinsky, “Southeast Asia: Voting Against Disorder”, Journal of Democracy, Volume 28, Number 2, April 2017, pp. 120-131 Recommended reading: Jie Lu, Yun-han Chu (2021), Trading Democracy for Governance, Journal of Democracy 32 (4): 115-130.||RESEARCH ESSAY DUE: 16 MAY, 23.55.|
|12||WRAP-UP LECTURE AND TAKE-HOME EXAM PREPARATION||TAKE-HOME EXAM DUE: 14 JUNE, 23.55.|
The registration for tutorials is through Wattle.
|Assessment task||Value||Due Date||Return of assessment||Learning Outcomes|
|Tutorial Participation (10%)||10 %||*||*||1,2,3,4,5.|
|First Short Paper (15%)||15 %||21/03/2022||28/03/2022||2,3,4,5|
|Second Short Paper (15%)||15 %||26/04/2022||10/05/2022||2,3,4,5|
|Research Essay (30%)||30 %||16/05/2022||23/05/2022||1,2,3,4,5|
|Take-home Exam (30%)||30 %||14/06/2022||*||1,2,3,4,5|
* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details
ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:
The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website. In rare cases where online submission using Turnitin software is not technically possible; or where not using Turnitin software has been justified by the Course Convener and approved by the Associate Dean (Education) on the basis of the teaching model being employed; students shall submit assessment online via ‘Wattle’ outside of Turnitin, or failing that in hard copy, or through a combination of submission methods as approved by the Associate Dean (Education). The submission method is detailed below.
Moderation of Assessment
Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.
See Assessment Task 1.
See Assessment Task 5.
Assessment Task 1
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5.
Tutorial Participation (10%)
You will be assessed on your tutorial participation. The assessment is primarily based on the quality of your contributions in class (and therefore, not simply on the frequency of your contributions and/or attendance.) After each tutorial, you will receive a mark. Absence is marked as zero, unless docomentation on justifiable absence is provided. At the end of the semester, the average of your eight best marks achieved throughout the semester will be your total mark for tutorial participation. In order to prepare for the tuorials, it is essential that you have read the required reading and attended/listened to the lecture of that week. The better you are prepared through reflecting on these materials (and, optionally, additional material you researched yourself), the more effectively you will be able to engage in class, and the better your mark will be.
For students who feel uncomfortable with public speaking in class or who face participation hurdles due to the specific circumstances created by the pandemic, the course convener accepts brief written commentaries on the main reading of the respective week as a substitute for a contribution made in class. Students who wish to make use of this opportunity should send this brief commentary to the course convener within one week of the tutorial for which the student seeks a substitute participation mark. However, such students should write to the course convener at the beginning of the semester and explain their reasons for not being able to contribute in class. Unavailability due to work commitments or similar reasons are not acceptable - the mechanism of substituting oral contributions with brief commentaries is designed to accommodate students who can't contribute in class because of the barriers mentioned above, not because of pragmatic timing issues or matters of convenience.
Assessment Task 2
Learning Outcomes: 2,3,4,5
First Short Paper (15%)
After the lecture on 28 February, a question will be explained and subsequently released in writing on Wattle. This question has to be answered by all students in a 1000-word paper that must be submitted through Turnitin on 21 March at 23.55 at the latest.
Assessment Task 3
Learning Outcomes: 2,3,4,5
Second Short Paper (15%)
After the lecture on 28 March, a question will be explained and subsequently released in writing on Wattle. This question has to be answered by all students in a 1000-word paper that must be submitted through Turnitin on 26 April at 23.55 at the latest.
Assessment Task 4
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5
Research Essay (30%)
A research paper of up to 2000 words is due no later than 16 May at 23.55, and should be submitted through Wattle. Students are free to choose any topic that is related to the overall subject of this course - that is, Southeast Asian Security. For more detailed guidelines on the research paper, please refer to the manual posted on the Wattle site of this course (and refer to the lecture on 28 March).
Assessment Task 5
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5
Take-home Exam (30%)
A take home exam will be posted on Wattle in the last week of the semester, and must be returned through Wattle no later than 14 June at 23.55.
Academic integrity is a core part of the ANU culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically, committing to honest and responsible scholarly practice and upholding these values with respect and fairness.
The ANU commits to assisting all members of our community to understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to be familiar with the academic integrity principle and Academic Misconduct Rule, uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with.
The Academic Misconduct Rule is in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Very minor breaches of the academic integrity principle may result in a reduction of marks of up to 10% of the total marks available for the assessment. The ANU offers a number of online and in person services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. Visit the Academic Skills website for more information about academic integrity, your responsibilities and for assistance with your assignments, writing skills and study.
You will be required to electronically sign a declaration as part of the submission of your assignment. Please keep a copy of the assignment for your records. Unless an exemption has been approved by the Associate Dean (Education) submission must be through Turnitin.
For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records.
Late submission permitted. Late submission of assessment tasks without an extension are penalised at the rate of 5% of the possible marks available per working day or part thereof. Late submission of assessment tasks is not accepted after 10 working days after the due date. Late submission is not accepted for take-home examinations.
Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.
Assignments (with the exception of the take-home exams) will be returned as hard copies with written commentary in text and a separate comment sheet. The time in which the assignment will be returned varies and is based on the length of the assignment. Please refer to the items in the assessment summary for detailed return times. Students who participate in online-only tutorials will be sent scans of their assessment sheets and in-text comments to their ANU emails.
Extensions and Penalties
Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure. The Course Convener may grant extensions for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.
Resubmission of Assignments
Re-submission of assignments after the deadline is only permitted after consultation with the course convener and (concurrently) if the previously submitted version suffered from a technical problem. Before the deadline, students are free to replace their previous submissions at any time.
Distribution of grades policy
Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes.
Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.
Support for students
The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).
- ANU Health, safety & wellbeing for medical services, counselling, mental health and spiritual support
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Indonesian politics; democracy and elections; the political role of the armed forces; Islamism
AsPr Marcus Mietzner