- Class Number 7034
- Term Code 3260
- Class Info
- Unit Value 6 units
- Mode of Delivery In Person
- Dr Adam Masters
- Dr Adam Masters
- Class Dates
- Class Start Date 25/07/2022
- Class End Date 28/10/2022
- Census Date 31/08/2022
- Last Date to Enrol 01/08/2022
The term "organised crime" brings to mind Drug Cartels, Mafias, Black Societies and Biker gangs. What do these groups have in common? What are their differences? What do they actually do? This course aims to unpack and understand the dynamics of organised crime, its actors, groups, activities and organisation as well as their geographical aspects. We will explore from a theoretical and practical perspective the different approaches that have been used in order to explain and understand organised crime, as well as the policy responses to it. Case-based approaches will be used to illustrate throughout the course.
Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
- apply the main theoretical approaches to the study of organised crime and their evolution across time;
- critically evaluate the contributions of different schools of thought to our understanding of organised crime;
- identify the main characteristics, activities, actors, and forms of organised crime;
- critically analyse organised crime policy at the local and international level; and
- succinctly communicate, orally and in writing, the outcomes of research on organised crime and criminal organisations.
Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
- written comments
- verbal comments
- feedback to whole class, groups, individuals, focus group etc
ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.
|Week/Session||Summary of Activities||Assessment|
|1||Week 1 – Course Overview Students should watch the part one and read the transcript of part two of the 2015 Four Corners exposé about the mafia in Australia before the first tutorials. These can be referenced as: McKenzie, N., Hichens, C., & Toft, K. (Writers). (2015b). The Mafia in Australia, Drugs, Murder and Politics [Television], Four Corners. Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. link ____ (Writers). (2015a). The Mafia in Australia, Blood Ties [Television], Four Corners. Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Link to transcript||This week's reading are: Paoli, L., & Vander Beken, T. (2014). Organized crime: A contested concept. In L. Paoli (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organized crime (pp. 13-31). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cressey, D. R. (1967). Methodological problems in the study of organized crime as a social problem. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 374(1), 101-112. There will be a tutorial in Week 1|
|2||Week 2 – Who or what is organised crime? Where do we focus our research on organized crime? Some argue it is the criminal act and how it is structured which should be the central focus. Others believe it is the criminal actors and the crimes they collectively commit. A simple example is whether to focus on the drug trafficking, or the drug trafficker.||This week's readings: Chambliss, W. J., & Williams, E. (2011). Transnational organized crime and social science myths. In F. Allum & S. Gilmour (Eds.), Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime (pp. 52-64). London, UK: Routledge. Maltz, M. D. (1976). On defining" Organized Crime" The development of a definition and a typology. Crime & Delinquency, 22(3), 338-346. McClymont, K. (2012, 13 December). International men of mystery, The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/action/printArticle?id=3859141 Varese, F. (2011). General introduction: What is organized crime? In F. Varese (Ed.), Organized crime: Critical concepts in criminology (Vol. 1, pp. 1-33). London, UK: Routledge.|
|3||Week 3 – Studying Organised Crime Like criminology in general, the study of organized crime presents methodological and data challenges. Do we trust police statistics? Do they tell us everything we need to know? Are large scale inquiries and Royal Commissions a political diversion, or do they truly reveal the extent and nature of organized crime?||This week's readings: Nozick, R. (1968). Anarchy and the state of utopia. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Chapter 2 Sergi, A., (2021). Stumbling upon places and cultures: An involuntary ethnography in researching the Australian 'ndrangheta. Journal of Criminology, 54 (4), 448-465 Smith Jr., D. (1980). Paragons, pirates and pariahs. Crime & Delinquency, 26(3), 358-386. Sparrow, M. K. (1991). The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks, 13(3), 251-274. Supplementary readings: Hobbs, D., & Antonopoulos, G. A. (2014). How to research organised crime. In L. Paoli (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organized crime (pp. 96-117). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Tilly, C., Evans, P. B., Rueschemeyer, D., & Skocpol, T. (1985). War making and state making as organized crime. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.|
|4||Week 4 – the mafia and other Organised Crime Groups In this week, we examine the godfather of all organized groups, the mafia with a specific focus on their presence in Australia. Unlike the United States, where the mafia have strongest links back to Sicily but have forged their own way, the ‘ndrangheta in Australia maintain close ties with Calabria. Contrasted with the strong familial bonds associated with the mafia are outlaw motorcycle gangs. First formed in California in the wake of World War II, the concept has crossed the Pacific with more than 20 groups now listed as criminal organizations in the various Australian jurisdictions.||This week's readings: Sergi, A. (2019). The ‘ndrangheta down under: Constructing the Italian mafia in Australia. European Review of Organised Crime, 5(1), 60-84. Bennetts, S. (2016). ‘Undesirable Italians’: Prolegomena for a history of the Calabrian ’Ndrangheta in Australia. Modern Italy, 21(1), 83-99. doi: 10.1017/mit.2015.5 Lauchs, M., Bain, A., & Bell, P. (2015). Outlaw motorcycle gangs: A theoretical perspective. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter 4 only Thompson, H. S. (1967). Hell's angels: The strange and terrible saga of the outlaw motor-cycle gangs of California. Melbourne, Australia: Penguin.(chapter 1 only) Supplementary readings Dickie, J. (2005). Cosa Nostra: a history of the Sicilian Mafia: Macmillan. Dickie, J. (2013). Mafia Republic: Italy's Criminal Curse. Cosa Nostra,'Ndrangheta and Camorra from 1946 to the present. London, England: Sceptre. McKenzie, N. (2012). The sting: Australia's plot to crack a global drug empire. Carlton, Australia: Victory Books.|
|5||Week 5 – Protection & the drug trade Nearly two decades ago, Diego Gambetta put forward the thesis that “the mafia is a specific economic enterprise, an industry which produces, promotes and sells private protection.” (Gambetta, 1993, p. 1). The first part of this lecture focuses on how protection works, what is collected and what are the broader implications for societies with a strong or weak mafia presence. The second half of the lecture explores the multi-layered nature of the illicit drug market provides wide-ranging opportunities for organized crime to profit. However, the operations of a street-level dealer differ widely from the drug king-pins.||This week's readings: Gambetta, D. (1988). Fragments of an economic theory of the mafia. European Journal of Sociology, 29(1), 127-145. Varese, F. (2014). Protection and extortion. In L. Paoli (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organised crime (pp. 343-358). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2018). World Drug Report. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 14 June 2019 from https://www.unodc.org/wdr2018/en/booklets.html Levitt, S. D., & Venkatesh, S. A. (2000). An economic analysis of a drug-selling gang's finances. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 755-789. Hughes, C., Ritter, A., Cowdery, N., & Phillips, B. (2014). Australian threshold quantities for'drug trafficking': Are they placing drug users at risk of unjustified sanction? In A. Tomlinson (Ed.), Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Supplementary readings (protection): Gambetta, D. (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The business of private protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Nuzzi, G., & Antonelli, C. (2010/2012). Blood Ties: The 'Ndrangheta: Italy's new mafia (J. Hunt, Trans.). London, England: Pan MacMillan. Supplementary readings (drugs): Venkatesh, S. (2009). Gang leader for a day: A rogue sociologist crosses the line. London, England: Penguin. Paoli, L., & Donati, A. (2013). The sports doping market: Understanding supply and demand, and the challenges of their control New York, NY: Springer. Bagley, B. (2012). Drug trafficking and organized crime in the Americas. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Update of the Americas. Retrieved 31 May 2016 from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/BB%20Final.pdf|
|6||Week 6 – Human trafficking & people smuggling Human trafficking is modern day slavery. According to estimates by the International Labour Organization, more than 20.9 million people are in some form of indentured service, 4.5 million are sexually exploited, 14.2 million are in forced labour and 2.2 million are under government imposed labour. This week's lecture unpacks the problem, who organizes these crimes and how they connect to other criminal activities.||Week 6 readings: Masters, A., & Graycar, A. (2017). A new Victorian era: Getting crime out of commercial sex. In B. Leclerc & E. Savona (Eds.), Crime prevention in the 21st century: Insightful approaches for crime prevention initiatives (pp. 293-315). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2020). Global report on trafficking in persons. Vienna, Austria: author. (Executive summary only - pp. 9-21) Supplementary readings Schloenhardt, A. (2001). Trafficking in migrants: Illegal migration and organized crime in Australia and the Asia Pacific region. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 29(4), 331-378. doi: 10.1006/ijsl.2001.0155. Bos, M. (2015). Trafficking in Human Organs Retrieved 12 November 2015 from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/549055/EXPO_STU%282015%29549055_EN.pdf. Larsen, J. J., Renshaw, L., Gray-Barry, S., Andrevski, H., & Corsbie, T. (2012). Trafficking in persons monitoring report: January 2009-June 2011. In A. Tomison (Ed.), AIC Monitoring Reports. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Cho, S.-Y., Dreher, A., & Neumayer, E. (2013). Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking? World Development, 41, 67-82.|
|7||Week 7 – Asian Organised Crime The ASEAN region represents one of the fastest growing economic zones on earth. Despite the pandemic, organized crime has continued to thrive throughout the region. This lecture draws on recent webinars presented by Dr Masters to ASEAN Border officials and covers the developments of organized crime and criminal markets throughout the region.||This week's readings: Broadhurst, R., Lauchs, M., & Lohrisch, S. (2012). Transnational and organized crime in Oceania. In P. R. Jay Albanese (Ed.), Transnational Crime. New York, NY: Sage. Broadhurst, R., & Le, V. K. (2012). Transnational organized crime in East and South East Asia. In A. T. H. Tan (Ed.), Transnational Crime in East and Southeast Asia’, East and South-East Asia: International Relations and Security Perspectives. London, England: Routledge. Broadhurst, R., & Wa, L. K. (2009). The transformation of triad ‘dark societies’ in Hong Kong: The impact of law enforcement, socio-economic and political change. Security Challenges, 5(4), 1-38.|
|8||Week 8 – Organised Crime and corruption Corruption differs from the other organised crimes examined in this course; corruption often enables the other crimes, yet is also a separate transnational crime in itself. This week we look at how corruption greases the wheels for organized crime and is used as a shield for criminal groups.||This week's readings: Della Porta, D. (2001). A judges' revolution? Political corruption and the judiciary in Italy. European Journal of Political Research, 39(1), 1-21. doi: 10.1023/a:1007134509892. Masters, A. (2018). 'How the transnational crime of corruption impacts global security', in PL Reichel & R Randa (eds), Transnational crime and global security, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger. United Nations 2003, 'United Nations Convention Against Corruption', Vienna, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, available from http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/Publications/Convention/08-50026_E.pdf. Supplementary readings: Della Porta, D. (2004). Political parties and corruption: Ten hypotheses on five vicious circles. Crime, Law and Social Change, 42(1), 35-60. doi: 10.1023/B:CRIS.0000041036.85056.c6. Della Porta, D., & Vannucci, A. (2007). Corruption and anti-corruption: The political defeat of 'Clean hands' in Italy. West European Politics, 30(4), 830-853. doi: 10.1080/01402380701500322. Gounev, P., & Bezlov, T. (2010). Examining the links between organized crime and corruption. Sofia, Bulgaria: Centre for the Study of Democracy. Retrieved 22 May 2016 from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/doc_centre/crime/docs/study_on_links_between_organised_crime_and_corruption_en.pdf [accessed 22 May 2016]. Paoli, L. (1997). The political-criminal nexus in Italy. Trends in Organized Crime, 3(1), 49-56. doi: 10.1007/s12117-997-1137-5.|
|9||Week 9 – Financial aspects of Organised Crime So you have run a successful organized criminal enterprise. The question is now what to do with the proceeds? In the 1980s, cocaine traffickers found they had literally rooms full of cash beyond their capacity to spend. What happens to this money? Who launders it, how? And what do the Panama Papers have to do with it all.||Week 9 readings: Beare, M. E. (2011). Responding to transnational organized crime: 'follow the money'. In F. Allum & S. Gilmour (Eds.), Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime (pp. 263-278). London, England: Routledge. Savona, E. U., & Riccardi, M. (Eds.). (2015). From illegal markets to legitimate businesses: the portfolio of organised crime in Europe: Final Report of Project OCP – Organised Crime Portfolio. Trento: Transcrime - Università degli Studi di Trento. Further reading: Moor, K. (2009). Crims in grass castles: The true story of Trimbole, Mr Asia and the disappearance of Donald Mackay (2nd ed.). Camberwell, Australia: Viking. Costigan, F. (1984). Royal Commission on the activities of the Federated Ship Painters and Dockers Union, Final Report (vols. 1-6). Canberra, Australia: The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of the State of Victoria. Martin de Sanctis, F. (2014). Football, Gambling, and Money Laundering: A Global Criminal Justice Perspective Springer. Levi, M., Dakolias, M., & Greenberg, T. (2007). Money laundering and corruption. In J. Campos, & Pradhan, S. (Ed.), The many faces of corruption: tracking vulnerabilities at the sector level (pp. 389-426). Washington, DC: World Bank. Nelen, H. (2004). Hit them where it hurts most? The proceeds-of-crime approach in the Netherlands. Crime Law and Social Change, 41(5), 517-534. doi: 10.1023/B:CRIS.0000039570.41125.fa.|
|10||Week 10 – Organised Crime and political chaos Advance fee fraud has provided the financial basis for Nigerian organised crime to branch out into drug trafficking and corruption at the highest level. The level of sophistication, disguised as simplicity continually leads to victims falling for well known and obvious scams. Why does this happen? And what can we learn about organised crime from this part of the world.||This week's readings: Ellis, S. (2011). Nigerian organized crime. In F. Allum & S. Gilmour (Eds.), Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime (pp. 127-142). London, England: Routledge. Glenny, M. (2009). McMafia: A journey through the global criminal underworld. New York, NY: Vintage Books. Williams, P. (2014). Nigerian criminal organisations. In L. Paoli (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organized crime (pp. 254-269). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.|
|11||Week 11 – State responses to Organised Crime Police jurisdiction often ends at the border, whereas organised crime groups take advantage of this fact. This week’s lecture looks at the development of international police cooperation and the legal instruments developed to overcome transnational organised crime. The first part of the lecture brings into focus the role of organisations such as INTERPOL, EUROPOL, ASEANAPOL and the UNODC. Despite this impressive international architecture for controlling organized crime, states continue to form their own responses suited to the societal context. Some of these a transferable, others are not. The second part of the lecture focuses on some of the domestic responses including Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organisations (RICO) laws from the US, anti-mafia laws in Italy and the Royal Commissions, National Crime Authority and Australian Crime Commission in Australia.||This week's readings: Blakey, G. R. (2006). RICO: The genesis of an idea. Trends in Organized Crime, 9(4), 8-34. doi: 10.1007/s12117-006-1011-x. Masters, A. (2011). INTERPOL: From Vienna to Canberra - The Evolution of Australia's Relationship with INTERPOL (1923-1975). Australian Police Journal, 65(2), 58-67. United Nations. (2000). United Nations convention Against transnational organized crime and the protocols thereto. Vienna: United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime Retrieved 10 November 2015 from http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/Publications/Convention/08-50026_E.pdf —— (2003). United Nations Convention Against Corruption. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Retrieved 10 November 2015 from http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/Publications/Convention/08-50026_E.pdf Further readings: Fijnaut, C. (2014). European Union organized crime control policies. In L. Paoli (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organized crime (pp. 572-592). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Deflem, M. (2002). "Wild Beasts Without Nationality": The uncertain origins of Interpol, 1898-1910. In P. Reichel (Ed.), The Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice (pp. 275-285). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Martha, R. S. J. (2010). The Legal foundations of Interpol. Portland, OR: Hart Publishing. Room, R., & Reuter, P. (2012). How well do international drug conventions protect public health? The Lancet, 379(9810), 84-91. Racketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations Act 1970 (US) La Spina, A. (2014). The fight against the Italian mafia. In L. Paoli (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organized crime (pp. 593-611). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. D'Alterio, A. (2011). The fight against transnational organized crime in Italy: What can we learn? In F. Allum & S. Gilmour (Eds.), Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime (pp. 470-482). London, England: Routledge.|
|12||Week 12 – Looking forward: Organised Crime in the XXIst century If history teaches us anything, it is that there is little change in human nature. If this is true, Organised Crime will continue to feature as a dark reflection of national societies. The course so far has shone a small light on the underworld of the past and present – but what of the future? This final lecture explores the influence and place of Organised Crime upon a few of the big issues facing global society – terrorism, globalization and the environmental movement.||Week 12 readings: Makarenko, T. (2011). Foundations and evolution of the crime-terror nexus. In F. Allum & S. Gilmour (Eds.), Routledge handbook of transnational organized crime (pp. 234-249). London, England: Routledge. Naim, M. (2006). Illicit: How smugglers, traffickers, and copycats are hijacking the global economy. Garden City, NY: Anchor Book. Senior, K., & Mazza, A. (2004). Italian “Triangle of death” linked to waste crisis. The Lancet Oncology, 5(9), 525-527. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(04)01561-X. Rogoff, K. (2014). Costs and Benefits to Phasing Out Paper Currency. Paper presented at the National Bureau of Economic Research Macroeconomics Annual Conference, Cambridge, MA. Further readings: Schloenhardt, A. (2008). The illegal trade in timber and timber products in the Asia-Pacific region (Vol. 89). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Environmental Investigation Agency. (2007). No questions asked: the impacts of US market demand for illegal timber. Retrieved from http://www.eia-global.org/forests_for_the_world/forests_for_the_world_reports.html. Friedman, T. L. (2000). The Lexus and the olive tree: Understanding globalization. London, England: Macmillan.|
|Assessment task||Value||Learning Outcomes|
|Tutorial Presentation||10 %||2|
|Policy Brief||30 %||1,2,3|
|Major essay||50 %||1,2,3,4|
* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details
ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:
- Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure
- Special Assessment Consideration Policy and General Information
- Student Surveys and Evaluations
- Deferred Examinations
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Moderation of Assessment
Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.
See Assessment Task 1
Assessment Task 1
Learning Outcomes: 2
Students are expected to complete set readings, contribute to discussion during tutorials and ask questions in lectures.
Tutorial participation includes completing the set readings each week, contributing to discussions and interacting with the tutor and other students.
Assessment Task 2
Learning Outcomes: 2
All students must make a 10 minute presentation to their tutorial group. Presentations will be in the form of a briefing on organised crime in different countries. The briefing is to include:
· What is the main organised crime problem in the country
· What organisations are involved in the organised crime
· The social and political context
· The social and/or political harm caused by organised crime
· The state response to organised crime
· Any Links to Australia
· A reference list of scholars or other authors who have written about organised crime in the subject country
Students may select an country from the following list. Alternately, students may select another country with the permission of the convenor. Only one student per tutorial group can present on a particular country. Cooperation across tutorial groups is encouraged.
Australia (discuss links to another country)
|Element||Excellent: HD 80% +||Very Good: D 70-79%||Good C 60-69%||Fair P 50-59%||Fail 0-49%|
Students introduces themselves and their topic, speaks clearly with no, or little reference to notes. Addresses the group.
Students introduces themselves and their topic, speaks clearly with some reference to notes. Some talking to slides.
Student introduces themselves and their topic, speaks clearly but mostly reads notes. Some talking to slides.
Student does not introduce themselves or their topic, mostly reads notes or mostly talks to slides.
Student does not introduce themselves and their topic, reads notes; or talks directly to slides, or no presentation made.
Presentation is theoretically framed, demonstrating a detailed understanding of the OC in the country and is a balanced overview of:
Presentation is theoretically framed, demonstrating a very good understanding of the country and includes all elements but may over or under focus on particular points
Presentation is theoretically framed, demonstrating an adequate understanding of the ocountry and includes most elements, but misses one of the required briefing elements.
Presentation is theoretically framed, demonstrating a limited understanding of the country and misses two or more elements
Presentation is not theoretically framed or demonstrates an inadequate understanding of the organised crime group.
Evidence of research (reference list) (25%)
Reference list includes evidence of research using contemporary sources; theoretical and empirical academic literature; and other relevant material (grey literature) properly incorporated into presentation.
Reference list includes evidence of research using contemporary sources; theoretical and empirical academic literature; and other relevant material (grey literature) with some incorporation into presentation.
Reference list includes evidence of research using contemporary sources; theoretical and empirical academic literature and other relevant material (grey literature) with little / poor incorporation into presentation.
Reference list shows little evidence of research or fails to use one or more of these source types: contemporary material; theoretical or empirical academic literature; grey literature
No reference list provided or no evidence of research in two or more source types.
Assessment Task 3
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3
This assessment relates to learning outcomes 1, 2 and 3. The policy brief presents an opportunity for students to explore in a critical manner the policy and practical aspects of the topics discussed in the course and to begin to think about them in a structured manner. This will enhance not only their knowledge of the topic at hand but also their ability to expose and think about different topics in a clear and nuanced manner. The policy brief requires research of both academic and grey literature.
By week 5, students are expected to have selected an organised crime problem requiring a policy brief and an audience of policy-makers who would receive the briefing.
The problem and audience will be discussed / approved during the week 5 tutorial.
Due: 4pm Thursday, 15 September 2022.
|Element||Excellent: HD 80% +||Very Good: D 70-79%||Good C 60-69%||Fair P 50-59%||Fail 0-49%|
Of the chosen organised crime problem
Policy brief demonstrates detailed understanding of selected problem, and includes insightful reflections drawing from the literature and course material
Policy brief demonstrates sound understanding of the problem and connects to the literature and course material
Policy brief demonstrates adequate understanding of problem, but makes no further connections
Policy brief demonstrates limited engagement with the problem: superficial response
Policy brief does not engage the problem
The policy brief consistently uses insightful evidence from the theoretical and empirical academic literature, and grey literature to support its recommendations with quotes and references
The policy brief includes some appropriate evidence from the theoretical and empirical academic literature, and grey literature to support its recommendations with quotes and references
The policy brief uses little or weak evidence from the theoretical and empirical academic literature, and grey literature to support its recommendations or fails to reference examples
The policy brief consists of general comments on the academic and grey literature unsupported by specific examples or fails to reference examples
The policy brief does not reference relevant evidence
to the chosen audience
Policy brief is consistently relevant to the audience and makes insightful connections between the organised crime problem and the policy-makers
Policy brief makes some connections between the policy-makers and the organised crime problem
Policy brief is mostly relevant to the audience, but recommendations are basic
Policy brief has little relevance for the policy makers or deviates from the organised crime problem
Policy brief has no relevance to the policy-makers and / or the organised crime problem
The policy brief extends the discussion and introduces new ideas or approaches
The policy brief fully engages a range of concepts from the course
The policy brief mostly follows established themes and ideas
The policy brief shows little initiative and repeat earlier ideas
The policy brief shows no initiative
Brief is exceptionally clear and concise (<5 minor errors)
Brief is mostly clear and concise (<10 minor errors)
Brief is mostly clear but disorganised or wordy, and may have errors (<15 minor errors)
Brief is confusing or off topic, and may have grammatical or other errors. (<20 minor errors)
Brief is indecipherable, has more than 20 errors, or fails to use APA 6th or 7th referencing (not style)
Assessment Task 4
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4
All students must prepare an essay of 3000 words (+/- 10%) to answer one of the set questions. Students must use APA 6th or 7th referencing and style for the essay. The reference list is not included in the word count.
Essay Questions to be provided.
Due: 4pm 3 November 2022
|Element||Excellent: HD 80% +||Very Good: D 70-79%||Good C 60-69%||Fair P 50-59%||Fail 0-49%|
Understanding of text
Essay demonstrates a detailed understanding of transnational and organised crime, & include insightful use of, or reflections upon the theoretical concepts
Essay demonstrates sound understanding of transnational and organised crime, and use of theoretical concepts
Essay demonstrates adequate understanding of transnational and organised crime and use of theoretical concepts
Essay demonstrates limited engagement with the theoretical concepts of transnational and organised crime - a superficial response
Essay does not engage with the theoretical concepts of organised crime
Essays should include empirical and theoretical academic material, and grey literature.
Essay consistently uses insightful evidence from the literature & course material, including quotes & page refs to support the point
Essay makes some insightful use of evidence from the literature & course material including quotes and page refs to support the point
Essay includes appropriate evidence from the literature & course material including quotes & page refs to support the point
Essay uses little or weak evidence from the literature or course material with few specific examples, or fails to reference examples
Essay fails to reference suitable literature and/or does not reference suitable theoretical literature
Response to Question (Relevance)
Essay is consistently relevant to the question and makes insightful connections between the literature
Essay is relevant to the question and makes connections between the literature
Essay is mostly relevant to the question and makes good use of the literature
Essay is relevant to the question, but basic, or deviates from the topic
Essay has little relevance, does not engage or answer the question within a suitable theoretical frame
Essay extends the concepts from the course material and introduces new ideas or approaches
Essay fully engages a range of concepts from the course
Essay mostly follows established themes and ideas
Essay shows little initiative and repeats earlier ideas
Essay shows no initiative
Written expression (including referencing style) (15%)
Essay is exceptionally clear and concise (<5 minor errors)
Essay is mostly clear and concise (<10 minor errors)
Essay is mostly clear but disorganised or wordy, and may have errors (<15 minor errors)
Essay is confusing or off topic, and may have grammatical or other errors. (<20 minor errors)
Essay is indecipherable, has more than 20 errors, or fails to use APA 6th or APA 7th referencing and/or style
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The Academic Misconduct Rule is in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Very minor breaches of the academic integrity principle may result in a reduction of marks of up to 10% of the total marks available for the assessment. The ANU offers a number of online and in person services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. Visit the Academic Skills website for more information about academic integrity, your responsibilities and for assistance with your assignments, writing skills and study.
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Individual assessment tasks may or may not allow for late submission. Policy regarding late submission is detailed below:
- Late submission not permitted. If submission of assessment tasks without an extension after the due date is not permitted, a mark of 0 will be awarded.
Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.
Extensions and Penalties
Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure. The Course Convener may grant extensions for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.
Distribution of grades policy
Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes.
Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.
Support for students
The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).
- ANU Health, safety & wellbeing for medical services, counselling, mental health and spiritual support
- ANU Diversity and inclusion for students with a disability or ongoing or chronic illness
- ANU Dean of Students for confidential, impartial advice and help to resolve problems between students and the academic or administrative areas of the University
- ANU Academic Skills and Learning Centre supports you make your own decisions about how you learn and manage your workload.
- ANU Counselling Centre promotes, supports and enhances mental health and wellbeing within the University student community.
- ANUSA supports and represents undergraduate and ANU College students
- PARSA supports and represents postgraduate and research students
Anti-corruption, quality of governance, organised crime
Dr Adam Masters
Dr Adam Masters