• Class Number 6537
  • Term Code 3370
  • Class Info
  • Unit Value 6 units
  • Topic Online
  • Mode of Delivery Online
    • Dr Miranda Forsyth
    • Dr Miranda Forsyth
  • Class Dates
  • Class Start Date 18/09/2023
  • Class End Date 17/11/2023
  • Census Date 06/10/2023
  • Last Date to Enrol 29/09/2023
SELT Survey Results

This course introduces students to the main concepts and debates in restorative justice in an evidence-informed way.  It explores the multitude of ways restorative justice can and is being used to respond to a variety of societal challenges.  This includes the juvenile and adult criminal justice context, as well as areas as diverse as environmental protection, sexual abuse and health. We will also examine how restorative justice is being used within institutions to respond to concerns about harassment, bullying and sexual abuse.  The course will also introduce students to relevant methodological tools for assessing the impact of restorative justice based approaches.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

  1. Demonstrate a working knowledge of key terms, concepts and ideas in the area of restorative justice;
  2. Analyse, debate and critically evaluate different restorative justice approaches and their value in a range of contexts (justice, institutional reform, environmental disasters etc;
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of adopting an evidence-based approach to the study of restorative justice and be familiar with the methodological tools necessary to develop an evidence base in this area
  4. Apply a restorative justice approach to a range of real life situations

Visit leading restorative justice websites to view some videos of different forms of restorative practices:

International Institute for Restorative Practices:


Prison Fellowship International:


Restorative Practices Australia:


European Forum for Restorative Justice


Or simply do an internet search for: ‘Restorative Justice Videos’ to find your areas of practice of special interest

Staff Feedback

Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
  • Written comments
  • Verbal comments
  • Feedback to the whole class, to groups, to individuals, focus groups

Student Feedback

ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.

Class Schedule

Week/Session Summary of Activities Assessment
1 What is restorative justice and why do we need it?Restorative justice is an approach to justice based on healing or repairing harm and building relationships. In this first session we get to know each other and the outline of the course and understand what is required from the assessment and from each other. We will also cover:·      Critiques of existing justice systems in the global North and the emergence of alternative approaches to justice·      Role of the community in existing justice systems·      Role of the victim in existing justice systems·      Role of emotion in existing criminal justice system·      History of restorative justice as a practice·      Brief contrast of restorative and retributive paradigms
Restorative practice: Multiple perspective-taking 
ReadingsMarshall, C. D. (2019). Justice as care. The International Journal of Restorative Justice2(2), 175–185. https://doi.org/10.5553/IJRJ/258908912019002002001Polavarapu, A. (2023). Myth-Busting Restorative Justice: Uncovering the Past and Finding Lessons in Community. UC Irvine Law Review, 13(3), 949–992. (focus on 949-970)
2 Theoretical underpinnings to restorative justiceRestorative justice can be linked with a number of theoretical underpinnings that support its emergence as a practice. Here we will look at some of the main theories that inform and support it, in addition to identifying some of the main principles and values. We focus on: ·      Conflicts as property; ·      Braithwaite’s theory of reintegrative shaming and active/ passive responsibility; ·      Procedural justice and fair process; ·      Relational theory; ·      Responsive regulation·      the Social Discipline Window
Restorative practice: Respectful dialogue and setting group norms in a deliberative way
ReadingsKim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (1997). Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy. Harvard business review75(4), 65–75. Christie, N. (1977). Conflicts as property. British Journal of Criminology17(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a046783J. Llewellyn, J. (2021). Transforming restorative justice. The International Journal of Restorative Justice4(3), 374–395. https://doi.org/10.5553/TIJRJ.000096
3 Common processes associated with restorative justiceMany people associate restorative justice with certain distinct processes. We will look at the main forms of restorative justice from a processual perspective, as well as some helpful practices and conceptualisations that have been developed to help restorative justice be utilised in institutions and in everyday life. We will cover:·      Victim Offender Mediation, ·      Restorative justice conferencing, ·      Family group conferencing, ·      Sentencing circles; ·      Restorative circles and dialogue; ·      Yarning circles·      Restorative practice·      How is restorative justice different to mediation and arbitration?
Restorative practice: Deep, reflective or active listening
ReadingsRipley, A. (2023, February 9). These radically simple changes helped lawmakers actually get things done. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/02/09/house-modernization-committee-bipartisan-collaboration-lessons/The psychologist Carl Rogers and the art of active listening , Aeon Essays, 30 May 2022, https://aeon.co/essays/the-psychologist-carl-rogers-and-the-art-of-active-listeningExample of RJ conference video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acRV29SSCaE&t=158s
4 Understanding the emotional dynamics of restorative justiceRestorative justice is often declared to be transformative, but how can we explain how that happens? Sometimes people talk about seeking to understand what happens inside the “black box” of a restorative justice conference. Understanding this requires engaging with emotions and emotional change, rituals and more. The topics we cover are:·      Emotional transitions and ritual in restorative justice·      Nathanson’s Compass of shame and ·      The temporality of restorative justice·      Memory consolidation and telling stories ·      Redemption narratives·      The concept of Readiness
Restorative practice: Asking affective and restorative questions
Readings (Choose 2 of these)Rossner, M. (2019). Restorative justice, anger, and the transformative energy of forgiveness. The International Journal of Restorative Justice, 2(3), 368–388. https://doi.org/10.5553/IJRJ.000005Maruna, S., & Ramsden, D. (2004). Living to Tell the Tale: Redemption Narratives, Shame Management, and Offender Rehabilitation. In A. Lieblich, D. P. McAdams, & R. Josselson (Eds.), Healing plots: The narrative basis of psychotherapy (pp. 129–149). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10682-007Crawford, A. (2015). Temporality in restorative justice: On time, timing and time-consciousness. Theoretical Criminology19(4), 470–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480615575804Bolitho, J. (2017). Inside the restorative justice black box: The role of memory reconsolidation in transforming the emotional impact of violent crime on victims. International Review of Victimology23(3), 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758017714549Suzuki, M. (2020). From “what works” to “how it works” in research on restorative justice conferencing: the concept of readiness. The International Journal of Restorative Justice3(3), 356–373. https://doi.org/10.5553/IJRJ.000049
5 Restorative justice and the criminal justice system part 1Restorative justice plays a wide range of roles in the criminal justice system, being potentially present in many different places in the system. We will examine these over the next two sessions, focusing on particular areas where its potential and use is highest. We will take as an example the place of restorative justice in the ACT’s criminal justice system. We will watch some short clips of a restorative justice conference held in Australia following a fatal shooting.·      The places we can find restorative justice in the criminal justice system from policing to sentencing to prisons·      Example of the role of RJ in the ACT·      Critiques about deterrence and proportionality in relation to restorative justice and other common critiquesRestorative practice: Facilitating a restorative justice conference  ReadingsMarder, I. (2020). Institutionalising restorative justice in the police: key findings from a study of two English police forces. Contemporary Justice Review23(4), 500–526. https://doi.org/10.1080/10282580.2020.1755847Walgrave, L. (2023). Restorative Justice, Punishment, and the Law. In M. C. Altman, (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook on the Philosophy of Punishment (pp. 613–637). Springer.Jackie, K., & McElrea, F. (2001). Restorative justice in prisons – a New Zealand experience. Wellington: International Corrections and Prisons Association.
6 Restorative justice and the criminal justice system part 2In this session we continue to investigate the role of restorative justice in the criminal justice system, focusing on a range of different areas in which it has been used. We will focus on:·      Corporate crime·      Environmental crime·      Juvenile justice·      Indigenous justice·      Coronial inquiries·      Family and sexual violence
Restorative practice: Motivational interviewing
Readings (choose 2)Homel, R. (2023, February 21). Why locking up youth offenders fails to reduce crime – and what we should be doing instead. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/feb/21/why-locking-up-youth-offenders-fails-to-reduce-and-what-we-should-be-doing-insteadGang, D., Kirkman, M., & Loff, B. (2023). “Obviously It’s for the Victim to Decide”: Restorative Justice for Sexual and Family Violence From the Perspective of Second-Wave Anti-Rape Activists. Violence Against Women0(0), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012231174353Braithwaite, J. (2020). Regulatory Mix, Collective Efficacy, and Crimes of the Powerful. Journal of White Collar and Corporate Crime1(1), 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/2631309X19872430Forsyth, M., Cleland, D., Tepper, F., Hollingworth, D., Soares, M., Nairn, A., & Wilkinson, C. (2021). A future agenda for environmental restorative justice? The International Journal of Restorative Justice4(1), 17–40. https://doi.org/10.5553/TIJRJ.000063Blagg, H. (2017). Doing restorative justice ‘otherwise’: Decolonising practices in the global south. In I. Aertsen & B. Pali (Eds.), Critical restorative justice (pp. 61-78). Hart Publishing.Braithwaite, J. (2017). Motivational interviewing and Restorative Justice praxis. In B. Pali, K. Lauwaert, & S. Pleysier (Eds.), The Praxis of Justice: Liber Amicorum Ivo Aertsen (pp. 33–40). The Hague: Eleven International Publishing.
7 Restorative justice in other regulatory spheresWhilst restorative justice is best known in the criminal justice context, it has spread to many different regulatory domains. We will look at a number of these, certainly environmental regulation, Readingsand also at the phenomenon of restorative cities that seek to infuse an entire city with a restorative ethos and approach. We will work together to choose a regulatory domain and consider how to “turn up the restorative dial” in the way in which it currently functions.·      Restorative justice in schools, workplaces, universities, hospitals, mental health, environmental regulation, restorative enquiries, community responses to sexual violence, and restorative cities·      Restorative justice continuumRestorative practice: Collaborative decision-making  ReadingsThe National Collaborative for Restorative Initiatives in Health. (2023). He Maungarongo ki Nga Iwi: Envisioning a Restorative Health System in Aotearoa New Zealand. The National Collaborative for Restorative Initiatives in Health. Wellington, Aotearoa NZ. https://www.hqsc.govt.nz/assets/Our-work/System-safety/Restorative-practice/Publications-resources/Envisioning-a-Restorative-Health-System-May-2023.pdfKatterl, S. (2023). Preventing and responding to harm: Restorative and responsive mental health regulation in Victoria. The Australian Journal of Social Issues58(2), 441–455. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajs4.242Llewellyn, J. J. (2019). Responding restoratively to student misconduct and professional regulation – the case of Dalhousie dentistry. In G. Burford, J. Braithwaite & V. Braithwaite (Eds.), Restorative and responsive human services (pp. 127-142). London: Routledge.
8 How is the effectiveness of restorative justice measured?Determining whether restorative justice works requires understanding what it seeks to achieve and whether and how these factors can be measured. We will look at some of the ways in which scholars and policy makers have sought to answer the question of how effective restorative justice is, whilst also being alive to the difficulties of measuring it. The session examines:·      Understanding the evidence base about restorative justice·      How do we know what we know? What constitutes ‘evidence’, How do we interpret the reliability and generalisability of statistics/research/data?·      What do we measure? Recidivism? Increased social capital? Other factors?·      Cost benefit analyses ·      Control trials and meta analysesRestorative practices: Engaging with emotions (empathy, courage, vulnerability, shame) ReadingsJonas - van Dijk, J., Claessen, J., Zebel, S., & Nelen, H. (2020). Victim-offender mediation and reduced reoffending: Gauging the self-selection bias. Crime and Delinquency66(6-7), 949–972. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128719854348Daly, A., Barrett, G., & Williams, R. (2020). Cost Benefit Analysis of Galambany Court. ACT Government. Braithwaite, J. (2021). Street-Level Meta-Strategies: Evidence on Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation. Annual Review of Law and Social Science17(1), 205–225. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111720-013149
9 Restorative justice within the international legal framework and in our regionRestorative justice has spread to every corner of the globe as a modern phenomena, and many forms of it always existed in the more relational justice systems that characterise many parts of the global South and indigenous communities. After an overview of what the international legal framework provides we will examine restorative justice in Asia and the Pacific. Restorative practices: Managing differing opinions restoratively (dialogue vs debate) ReadingsChoose two of the following:·       United Nations Economic and Social Council (2002). Resolution 2002/12 on the Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice Programmes in Criminal Matters Dinnen, S. (2010). Restorative justice in the pacific islands: an introduction. In S. Dinnen, A. Jowitt & T. Newton (Eds), A Kind of Mending: Restorative Justice in the Pacific Islands (pp. 1-34). ANU E Press..6789)Zhang Y., Liu, J., & Braithwaite, J. (2023). The Pluralism of Restorative Justice in Greater China: an Introduction. Asian Journal of Criminology18(2), 83–87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-023-09402-0Braithwaite, J., & Gohar, A. (2014). Restorative Justice, Policing and Insurgency: Learning from Pakistan. Law & Society Review48(3), 531–561. https://doi.org/10.1111/lasr.12091
10 Restorative justice in relation to societal challenges of the 21st centuryThis session looks at specific application of restorative justice to contemporary challenges. We will look at the scale and the type of the challenge or problem, society’s typical response to it and the alternative restorative response that has been or could be designed, its potential and limitations. ·      Extreme violence and terrorism·      The war in Ukraine·      Workplace bullying·      Other topics chosen by classRestorative practice: Reframing or “changing lenses”  ReadingsChoose two of the following:Braithwaite, V. & Ahmed, E. (2015). The Personal Management of Shame and Pride in Workplace Bullying, RegNet Research Paper No. 2015/96. RegNet Research Paper Series, 3(10), Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet).Shin, H., Braithwaite V. & Ahmed, E. (2016). Cyber- and face-to-face bullying: who crosses over? Social Psychology of Education, 19(3), 537-567.Walgrave, L. (2015). Domestic terrorism: a challenge for restorative justice. Restorative Justice: An International Journal3(2), 282–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/20504721.2015.1069533Zernova, M. (2017). Restorative justice in the Basque peace process: some experiments and their lessons. Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice20(3), 363–391. https://doi.org/10.1080/10282580.2017.1348899Pali, B. (2018, October 11). Restorative justice and terrorism: resisting evil with non-evil?. Security Praxis Collective Blog. https://securitypraxis.eu/restorative-justice-and-terrorism/Braithwaite, J. (2022). Putin’s war: restorative reflections. The International Journal of Restorative Justice5(2), 137–147. https://doi.org/10.5553/TIJRJ.000117
11 Apology, Forgiveness and Power in restorative justiceThis unit is a deep dive into apology and forgiveness, two concepts that are at the heart of much restorative justice and practice. What does it take to apologise? Why is apology so powerful? We also examine power dynamics which are omnipresent in doing and discussing restorative justice. We discuss a number of approaches to conceptualising power that are helpful in engaging in discussions about restorative justice and power. We will also think about whether power imbalances mean restorative justice is never appropriate through focusing on some of the most contentious uses of restorative justice.·      Why is understanding power necessary for understanding RJ?·      What conceptions of power are helpful?·      Addressing power imbalances in restorative justice conferences, approaches and techniques·      Restorative justice, race, gender and class
Restorative practices: Living with a restorative justice mindset – restorative practices for daily life
ReadingsChoose two of the following:Roberts, D. (2019). Black Mothers, Prison, and Foster Care: Rethinking Restorative Justice. In G. Burford, J. Braithwaite & V. Braithwaite (Eds.), Restorative and Responsive Human Services (1st ed., pp. 116–126). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429398704-8Willis, R. (2020). “Let’s talk about it’: Why social class matters to restorative justice. Criminology & Criminal Justice20(2), 187–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895818804307Akbar, A. (2019, June 12). The Apology by Eve Ensler review – my father, who abused me. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/jun/12/the-apology-eve-ensler-reviewBramble, B. (2022, March 29). There’s only one way Will Smith can make amends: give the award back. The Sydney Morning Herald. https://amp.smh.com.au/culture/movies/there-s-only-one-way-will-smith-can-make-amends-give-the-award-back-20220329-p5a90m.htmlGavrielides, T. 2023. Domestic Violence and Power Abuse Within the Family: The Restorative Justice Approach in P. Sturmey (ed.), Violence in Families, Advances in Preventing and Treating Violence and Aggression, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-31549-7_18
12 Critiquing and developing restorative justice and other non-adversarial forms of justiceToday we focus on understanding the common critiques made of restorative justice? What are some of its greatest challenges? How have these been responded to? How can restorative justice continue to develop? In the second half we think about the way that restorative justice can be seen as part of a growing body of scholarship and practice seeking new ways to create a more just society. We examine here a number of other alternative justice approaches that also seek to heal at the same time as addressing conflict.Restorative practices: Giving and receiving feedback
ReadingsChoose two of the following:Acorn, A. (2004). Compulsory Compassion: A Critique of Restorative Justice. UBC Press. (Chapter 1)Kim, M. E. (2018). From carceral feminism to transformative justice: Women-of-color feminism and alternatives to incarceration. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work27(3), 219–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/15313204.2018.1474827Gal, T. (2020). Restorative justice myopia. The International Journal of Restorative Justice3(3), 341–355. https://doi.org/10.5553/IJRJ.000051Daicoff, S. (2006). Law as a Healing Profession: The “Comprehensive Law Movement.” Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal6(1), 1–62.

Assessment Summary

Assessment task Value Due Date Return of assessment Learning Outcomes
In-class participation for the entire course (12 classes) (5%) and discussion of a social issue/problem that you would like to consider restorative justice in relation to (5%) 10 % * 17/11/2023 1,2,3
Development of a role play exercise 20 % 09/10/2023 16/10/2023 1,4
Research and writing plan and outline for major essay (1000 words) 20 % 16/10/2023 23/10/2023 1,2,3
Major essay (4000 words) 50 % 13/11/2023 30/11/2023 1,2,3

* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details


ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:

Assessment Requirements

The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website Students may choose not to submit assessment items through Turnitin. In this instance you will be required to submit, alongside the assessment item itself, hard copies of all references included in the assessment item.

Moderation of Assessment

Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.

Assessment Task 1

Value: 10 %
Return of Assessment: 17/11/2023
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

In-class participation for the entire course (12 classes) (5%) and discussion of a social issue/problem that you would like to consider restorative justice in relation to (5%)

At the start of the course you will nominate a class in which you will present for 5 minutes on the potential application of restorative justice to a social issue, injustice or problem that you are interested in. You are encouraged either to choose a relatively new/emerging issue (fake news, Black Lives matter, #Metoo etc) or else one that you have personally encountered or are particularly interested in. You should discuss why you chose the topic and how a restorative approach to the topic differs from how it is currently dealt with/ could be dealt with.

Assessment Task 2

Value: 20 %
Due Date: 09/10/2023
Return of Assessment: 16/10/2023
Learning Outcomes: 1,4

Development of a role play exercise

Students will be required to design a role play exercise involving a restorative approach to a problem of their choice. This will involve creating a scenario and the characteristics of the characters who will be involved in the restorative process as well as providing instructions for the facilitator. The aim is for the role play to be used by a group of students learning about restorative justice (10%). You must also provide a separate written explanation (10%) about why you chose the scenario, and created the characters and facilitators instructions in the way you did what elements of a restorative approach it is intended to teach participants. You should explicitly draw on some of the theoretical foundations of restorative justice. The length of this exercise is 1,000 words in total.

Assessment Task 3

Value: 20 %
Due Date: 16/10/2023
Return of Assessment: 23/10/2023
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

Research and writing plan and outline for major essay (1000 words)

Submit a 1000 word essay outline for the major essay (word count does not include references/ bibliography).

The outline should set out the topic chosen (this should be discussed and approved by the course convener by the third teaching week of the course at the latest), the structure for your major essay, your main arguments or claims and the sources, examples and evidence you will draw upon (i.e. a provisional bibliography for the final paper). The 1000 word essay should be mostly written in paragraphs.

Assessment Task 4

Value: 50 %
Due Date: 13/11/2023
Return of Assessment: 30/11/2023
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

Major essay (4000 words)

Submit a 4000 word essay on a particular aspect of restorative justice approved by the course convener in discussion with the student. The essay must include:

  • critical engagement with the concept of restorative justice and the relevant literature; and
  • clear application of theory of restorative justice to the topic chosen; and
  • discussion of the merits and limitations of restorative justice in the context of the topic; and
  • relevant engagement with the issue of the evidence base drawn upon or required to make arguments in relation to the topic

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a core part of our culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically. This means that all members of the community commit to honest and responsible scholarly practice and to upholding these values with respect and fairness. The Australian National University commits to embedding the values of academic integrity in our teaching and learning. We ensure that all members of our community understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with. The University has policies and procedures in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Visit the following Academic honesty & plagiarism website for more information about academic integrity and what the ANU considers academic misconduct. The ANU offers a number of services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. The Academic Skills and Learning Centre offers a number of workshops and seminars that you may find useful for your studies.

Online Submission

The ANU uses Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. While the use of Turnitin is not mandatory, the ANU highly recommends Turnitin is used by both teaching staff and students. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website.

Hardcopy Submission

For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records.

Late Submission

No submission of assessment tasks without an extension after the due date will be permitted. If an assessment task is not submitted by the due date, a mark of 0 will be awarded.

Referencing Requirements

Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.

Extensions and Penalties

Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure The Course Convener may grant extensions for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.

Privacy Notice

The ANU has made a number of third party, online, databases available for students to use. Use of each online database is conditional on student end users first agreeing to the database licensor’s terms of service and/or privacy policy. Students should read these carefully. In some cases student end users will be required to register an account with the database licensor and submit personal information, including their: first name; last name; ANU email address; and other information. In cases where student end users are asked to submit ‘content’ to a database, such as an assignment or short answers, the database licensor may only use the student’s ‘content’ in accordance with the terms of service — including any (copyright) licence the student grants to the database licensor. Any personal information or content a student submits may be stored by the licensor, potentially offshore, and will be used to process the database service in accordance with the licensors terms of service and/or privacy policy. If any student chooses not to agree to the database licensor’s terms of service or privacy policy, the student will not be able to access and use the database. In these circumstances students should contact their lecturer to enquire about alternative arrangements that are available.

Distribution of grades policy

Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes. Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.

Support for students

The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).
Dr Miranda Forsyth

Research Interests

Restorative justice; Legal pluralism; Law and society; Legal anthropology; Crime and violence; Government and politics of Asia and the Pacific; Intellectual property law.

Dr Miranda Forsyth

By Appointment
Dr Miranda Forsyth
6125 1505

Research Interests

Restorative justice; Legal pluralism; Law and society; Legal anthropology; Crime and violence; Government and politics of Asia and the Pacific; Intellectual property law.

Dr Miranda Forsyth

By Appointment

Responsible Officer: Registrar, Student Administration / Page Contact: Website Administrator / Frequently Asked Questions