- Class Number 2006
- Term Code 2930
- Class Info
- Unit Value 6 units
- Mode of Delivery In Person
- Dr Patrick Guinness
- Dr Patrick Guinness
- Class Dates
- Class Start Date 25/02/2019
- Class End Date 31/05/2019
- Census Date 31/03/2019
- Last Date to Enrol 04/03/2019
This course examines mainstream and alternative concepts of development by focusing on development issues and case studies located in so-called Third World countries. It examines the historical background to development ideas and practices, and the cultural presuppositions and assumptions on which they are consequently based, as well as the ways in which they impact on different cultures throughout the world. Of particular interest will be alternative concepts of development, such as people-centred development, gender and development, equity in development, local knowledge and values, sustainable development, and participation and empowerment in development.
Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:Upon successful completion of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills to:
- Critically evaluate development programs and projects in terms of their social and cultural impact.
- Apply anthropological concepts and theories to an understanding of planned social change.
- Critically examine key ethnographic writing in terms of its theoretical and methodological approach.
- Present and engage in group discussion about development.
- Devise strategies for successful development outcomes.
- Critically examine the interaction between government, non-government organisations and civil society in development.
Examination Material or equipment
Further interesting reading
Arturo Escobar 1996, Encountering Development
Naila Kabeer 1994 Reversed Realities; Gender hierarchies in development thought
Lont, H. 2005 Juggling Money.
D. Lewis and D. Mosse (eds) 2006 Development Brokers and Translators
D. Mosse and D. Lewis (eds) 2005 The Aid Effect: Giving and governing in international development
Mosse, David 2011 Adventures in Aidland
Useful books on theory and practice of development
Tim Allen and Alan Thomas (eds) 1992, Poverty and Development in the 1990s
Mark Berger 2004, The Battle for Asia
Marc Edelman and Angelique Haugerud (eds) 2005 The Anthropology of Development and Globalization
James Ferguson 1994, Anti-Politics MachineKaty Gardner and David Lewis 1996, Anthropology, Development and the Post-Modern Challenge
Alan Gilbert and Joseph Gugler 1992, Cities, Poverty and Development
B. Hettne 1990, Development Theory and the Three Worlds
Jorge Larrain 1989 Theories of Development
Ted Lewellen 2002, The Anthropology of Globalization
David Maybury-Lewis 1992, Millenium: Tribal Wisdom and the Modern World
Richard Peet and Elaine Hartwick 2009 Theories of Development: Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives (2nd ed)New York/London; The Guilford Press
Richard Robbins 2005, Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism
W. Sachs (ed) 1992, The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power
Stephen Sanderson and Arthur Alderson 2005, World Societies
Susanne Schech and Jane Haggis (eds) 2002. Development: A Cultural Studies Reader
Critique of Anthropology
Development: Journal of the Society for International Development
Development and Change
Development in Practice
Economic Development and Cultural Change
Journal of Development Studies
Third World Quarterly
Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.
When writing your essay, you must reference to any source which has significantly influenced the argument you are making and/or the position you are adopting. This is so whether or not you directly quote from that source. This is not only ethical practice; it also helps to strengthen what you are saying, and demonstrates to anyone reading the essay that you have consulted and understood relevant material.
Do not footnote references (neither at the bottom of the page, nor at the end of the essay); instead, provide the necessary information in brackets in the body of the text. Provide the surname of the author only and the year of publication, plus any relevant page numbers if the reference is to a specific part of the work. Never give the author’s full name or the title of the publication at this point. An example:
- Bhil farming households have for a long time depended on their farms and external patrons (Mosse 2006: 73)
Mosse’s full name and the details of his article (or book) will be listed in the Bibliography or List of References at the end of the essay (see examples of these below).
If you want to quote directly from a published (or unpublished) work, either because you think it makes the point succinctly or because you admire the author’s turn or phrase, you must put the quoted phrase in quotation marks. For example:
- As an anthropologist who has worked for many years among the Bhil puts it: “Migration and cultivation are interdependent” (Mosse 2006: 73)
A longer quotation (more than two sentences) should be indented to separate it out from the rest of the text. For example:
- The Bhil depend on both farming and migration to provide them with a living:
Ultimately,for most Bhils migration is not an external factor engendering non-agrarian identities. Migration and cultivation are interdependent. Effective labour migration is hardly possible without village-based networks and contacts through which to ‘cultivate’ urban employment….In fact, Bhil agricultural villages studied here have long involved simultaneous connections to the land and to external patrons. (Mosse 2006: 73)
Note that in the above quotation a series of dots (…. or …) is used. This indicates that you have removed some of the original text from your quoted passage. Four dots (….) indicates that the removed text crosses a sentence ending while three dots (…) indicates that the removal has taken place within a single sentence.
If you want to paraphrase—or express in your own words—what another author is saying, you must include a reference to the author concerned to indicate that the ideas expressed come from him or her.
Bibliography or List of References
Every work that you refer to and/or quote from in your essay must be listed in a Bibliography or List of References located at the end of the essay. Every essay you submit must have a Bibliography or List of References attached. Sources are listed in alphabetical order by author’s surname. Do not include sources which you have not referred to or quoted from in the body of the essay, and do not number the entries.
Entries in a Bibliography or List of References must contain the author’s full name as given in the book or article in question, the year of publication, the title of the book or article, place of publication and the name of the publisher. In the case of an article, the entry must also include the name of the book or journal in which it appeared. In the former case it must also provide the name of the editor(s) of the book, and in the latter the volume and issue number of the journal.
Some examples of entries in a Bibliography or List or References:
- A book: Geddes, W. R. 1957. Nine Dayak Nights. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
- A journal article: Wolf, Eric 1988. Inventing society. American Ethnologist 15(4): 752-61.
- An article in an edited collection: Atkinson, Jane Monnig 1990. How gender makes a difference in Wana society. In J. M. Atkinson and S. Errington (eds.) Power and Difference: Gender in Island Southeast Asia. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
- A film: Connolly, B. and R. Anderson 1988. Joe Leahy’s Neighbours (video). Sydney: Arundel Productions.
- A web site: Schwimmer, B. 1995. Kinship and social organization: an interactive tutorial. HYPERLINK. http://www.umanitoba,ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/kintitle. Accessed: 24th April 2001.
Note that in each case the title of the book or journal is italicised (it can also be underlined if you prefer). If you are referencing an article found in a book or journal, then the title of the article is not italicised; only the title of the book or journal in which it is found is italicised.
|Summary of Activities
|Week 1 Feb 25-27 Thinking anthropologically about development Anthropology is the study of the cultural, across groups and across time. While early anthropology focused on the analysis of discrete groups, and often a-historically, contemporary anthropology is the study of social change and development in its broadest sense. It seeks to understand the way people through global and local cultures interact and engage with different ways of being and doing. What does this mean for the anthropological approach to development? Anthropologists have commended and criticized the way development has operated over the last century. They have studied social and cultural changes, many of them a result of development interventions. Some suggest development is in ruins and needs replacing, others that the interactions among development participants need radical overhaul. Anthropologists have long debated the pros and cons of participating in development action. Most anthropologists develop a deep commitment to the people who provide them with primary data, and many seek to improve the lives of their friends or larger group in that society. But engagement in development is not without methodological and ethical concerns for most anthropologists.
|Themes to consider: development discourse, critical and applied anthropology, humanitarian development, politics of exception, anthropological approaches Key lecture reading: Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardin 2005 Anthropology and Development. Chapter 1 Tutorial readings We will discuss the course, get to know each other and examine some of the attitudes and dynamics that generate the development industry. Tania Li 2009 To make live or let die? Rural dispossession and the protection of surplus populations. Antipode 41, S1; 66-93 Neil Gabiam 2012 When “humanitarianism” becomes “development”; The politics of international aid in Syria’s Palestinian Refugee camps. American Anthropologist 114, 1; 95-107 Focus for discussion. Does development continue to be a discourse imposed by the West/ North, and for that reason ill-suited to the situation of countries of the South?
|Week 2 March 4-6 Development focus on poverty, inequality and empowerment. Anthropology takes a structural or relational approach to poverty, seeing poverty as the outcome of particular relations within a political economy. Certain categories of people, defined by gender or ethnicity, religion or disability, age or skills are rendered poor by the structural relations imposed on them. We will look at these relations and the discourse about the poor that characterises development 'speak', including calls for the satisfaction of basic needs and development as freedom. This will lead to a discussion of human-centred approaches to development associated with various neo-populists, including participatory and empowerment strategies.
|Themes to consider: structural poverty, inequality, neo-populism, participatory development, empowerment, human rights, community development, micro-credit, social capital Key lecture reading: Crewe and Axelby 2013 Anthropology and Development. Chapter 4 Tutorial readings Paul Farmer 2003 Pathologies of Power, Chapter 1 James Ferguson 2015 Give a man a fish: reflections on the new politics of distribution. Chapt 3 Focus for discussion Why is there still poverty in a world of economic growth and development? What are the politics of poverty?
|Week 3 March 12-13 There is no lecture this week due to the Canberra Day public holiday.
|Tutorials Tutorials will meet as normal. In preparation for the tutorial identify a development issue or scenario to which you would hope to make a contribution with the knowledge you gain from development studies and anthropology. Indicate some of the complexity of that situation that your contribution would have to address. Present these ideas in class- limit of three minutes. Theme to consider: What makes development planning and action so complex?
|Week 4 March 18-20 Business of development, its policies and practices Development began formally in 1949, constructed as models and formulae for economic growth and national state formation. It was engineered through national programs and specific projects defined through logical frameworks. It was often proposed as a purely technical fix through the input of technology and expertise. We will trace the changes in the business of development through an anthropological perspective based on the ethnography of development approach. We will contrast various state and non-state ways of thinking and planning development and how other responses are revealed in development practices. North and South approaches to development practice will be compared.
|Themes to consider: link of policy and practice, rendering technical, anti-politics machine, dead aid, civil society, thinking like a state, South-South cooperation, Key lecture reading: David Mosse 2004 Is good policy unimplementable? Reflections on the ethnography of aid policy and practice. Development and Change 35, 4; 639-671 Tutorial readings Tania Li 2007 The Will to Improve. Introduction Benedetta Rossi 2006 Aid policies and recipient strategies in Niger. In D. Lewis and D. Mosse. Development Brokers and Translators Focus for discussion What are the moral and political problems with the governance of aid? How might development institutions be reoriented to meet the needs of the poor more effectively?
|Week 5 March 25-27 Anthropological contributions to development thinking We focus on some of the key debates within anthropology that have contributed to development critique, planning and practice: Gender, hierarchies of knowledge, social movements, and brokers/ translators..
|Themes to consider: women in development, gender and development, third sector, social movements, civil society, endogenous development, alternatives to development, Key lecture reading: Gardner and Lewis 2015 Anthropology and Development. Chapters 3, 5 Tutorial readings Annelies Zoomers 2006 Pro-indigenous reforms in Bolivia: Is there an Andean way to escape poverty. Development and Change 37, 5; 1023-1046 Robert Albro 2006 The culture of democracy and Bolivia’s indigenous movements. Critique of Anthropology 26, 4; 387-410 Focus for discussion Does anthropological theory and practice contribute to improving the position of marginalized groups in society?
|Week 6 April 1-3 Sustainable development A key critique of development, as of economic growth in general, focuses on the sustainability of such development. Anthropology has a particular brief here in understanding the relations people of many different cultures have with their environment and that has led to alternate development practices and the promotion of alternate goals for development. Sustainability encompasses more than the relations with the natural environment, it calls for examination of how the benefits of development can be guaranteed for succeeding generations in economic, ecological, political and cultural terms.
|Themes to consider: sustainability, ecodevelopment, CBNRM, commons, customary rights Key lecture reading: James Scott 1998 Thinking like a State. Chapt. 8 Taming nature Amartya Sen 2013 Ends and means of sustainability. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-centred Development 14,1:6-20 Tutorial readings Piers Blaikie 2006 Is small really beautiful? Community-based resource management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development 34, 11 Mara Goldman 2003 Partitioned nature, privileged knowledge: Community-based conservation in Tanzania. Development and Change 34,5; 833-862 Focus for discussion How has CBNRM fashioned and ignored local forms of social organisation and knowledge? Examine CBNRM as an exemplary form of participatory development. Are the 'commons' the biggest obstacle to environmental sustainability? How can CSR be improved by an ethnography of its practices?
|Week 7 April 23-24 There is no lecture class this week due to the Easter long weekend.
|Tutorials Tutorials will meet as usual. Prepare to debate in your tutorial some key questions that your Term 1 essays will have addressed: What do we mean by development? What do we hope development achieves? What specific contributions does anthropology make? How should we analyse and evaluate development?
|Week 8 April 29 – May 1 Ethnography Dinah Rajak 2009 In Good Company: An Anatomy of Corporate Social Responsibility Dinah Rajak is Reader in anthropology and development at the University of Sussex. This book considers the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility as practised by the huge Anglo-American mining company
|Themes to consider: Corporate social responsibility, attitudes to HIV and treatment, poverty in a mining environment, state partnership with corporations, local development impacts of global corporations Key lecture reading: Rajak 2015 chapter 1 “Let business lift Africa out of poverty” Tutorial readings: Rajak 2015 Chapter 7 Ching Kwan Lee 2010 Raw encounters: Chinese managers, African workers and the politics of casualization in Africa’s Chinese enclaves. In Fraser and Larmer (eds) Zambia, Mining and Neoliberalism: Boom and Bust on the Globalized Copperbelt
|Week 9 May 6-8 Ethnography Katy Gardner 2011 Discordant Development. Global Capitalism and the Struggle for Connection in Bangladesh Katy Gardner teaches social anthropology at the London School of Economics and writes novels based on her ethnographic experiences. Her general text is a reference text for this course. In this book she examines the impact of industrial expansion in rural Bangla Desh, the impact of the ‘resource trap’ and state corruption, and the notion of corporate social responsibility. She analyses village labour absorption in industrial development and the various knowledges and dreams they hold.
|Themes to consider: Industrial demand for land labour, corporate social responsibility, ethnographic methods, natural resource trap, diverse knowledges, migrant nostalgia and remittances, corruption in government, knowing and silencing, power and repression, CSR, corruption and connectivity, economic zones Key lecture reading: Gardner 2011 Chapt.1 Tutorial reading Katy Gardner 2011 Chapt.5, pp.161-188 Jamie Cross 2010 Neoliberalism as unexceptional: Economic zones and the everyday precariousness of working life in South India. Critique of Anthropology 30,4;355-373
|Week 10 May 13-15 Ethnography: David Mosse 2005 Cultivating Development: an ethnography of aid policy and practice David Mosse teaches social anthropology at University of London. This book focuses on both the international politics of development and the everyday practice of development, as demonstrated through a UK program of development in Gujarat, India, among indigenous adivasi.
|Themes to consider: Participatory development, empowerment, social capital, participatory methods in development, structural poverty and marginalization, indigenous development, ethnography of development, government policy and local practices, gender and development, microfinance, development brokers. Key lecture reading: David Mosse 2005 Chapt 2 Framing a participatory development project Tutorial readings Mosse 2005 Chapter 9 Aspirations for development David Mosse 2010 A relational approach to durable poverty, inequality and power The Journal of Development Studies 46, 7; 1156-1178
|Week 11 May 20-22 Ethnography: Paige West 2016 Dispossession and the Environment: rhetoric and inequality in Papua New Guinea Paige West teaches anthropology at Columbia University, New York. Her book looks at issues of sustainability, capacity building, tourism and conservation in Papua New Guinea.
|Themes to consider; diverse ontologies, local knowledge and skills, capacity building, conservation, NGOs, dreams of development, tourism, dispossession and resource extraction. Key lecture reading: West 2016 Introduction Tutorial reading Paige West 2016. Chapt. 4, pp, 111-140 Marisol de la Cadena 2010 Indigenous cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual reflection beyond “politics”. Cultural Anthropology 25, 2; 334-370
|Week 12 May 27-29 Ethnography Emma Kowal 2015 Trapped in the Gap: Doing Good in Indigenous Australia Emma Kowal is an anthropologist at Deakin University. She trained originally in medicine before training in medical anthropology. Her book explores the behavior of researchers and practitioners working within the Darwin Institute of Health whom she categorises as white anti-racists. She looks at some of the perplexities for whites and non-whites seeking to do ‘good’ for remote Aborigines in the Northern Territory.
|Themes to consider: aboriginal health, welfare state, cultural appropriations, community self-determination, closing the gap, intervention, remedialism, performance Key lecture reading: Emma Kowal 2015 Introduction and Chapter 1 Tutorial readings Emma Kowal 2015 Conclusion Marcia Langton 2011 Anthropology, politics and the changing world of Aboriginal Australians. Anthropological Forum 21. 1; 1-22
Please register for a tutorial on the Wattle home page.
|Return of assessment
|Tutorial/ workshop participation
|Lecture class presentation of ethnography (Weeks 8-12)
|Comparative ethnographies essay
* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details
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Moderation of Assessment
Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.
Your participation in the tutorials will be graded on your general contribution to tutorial discussion (15%). There will be twelve tutorials. The mark you receive each week will reflect your preparation and readiness to comment on the readings and contribute to group discussions. Absence from the tutorial will be recorded as a zero for that week, unless you have a medical certificate for that absence. You are encouraged to introduce your own research and your own questions into these tutorial discussions.
Assessment Task 1
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5,6
Tutorial/ workshop participation
Campus Tutorials/ workshops (15%)
Tutorials/ workshops are held each week, commencing in the first week of semester. Please register for a tutorial on the Wattle home page. It is mandatory to attend at least nine tutorials. Failure to do so without adequate documented excuse will mean you fail the course. Your participation in the tutorials will be graded on your presence and general contribution to tutorial discussion (15%). There will be twelve tutorials. The mark you receive each week will reflect your knowledge of the readings and your contributions to group discussions. You are encouraged to introduce your own research and experience and your own questions into these tutorial discussions.
Assessment Task 2
Learning Outcomes: 3,6
Lecture class presentation of ethnography (Weeks 8-12)
Campus Ethnography presentation second term weeks 8-12 (10%)
In the second term we focus on a key ethnography each week. During the lecture class there will be a one hour lecture that introduces the background and key debates that the ethnography addresses. In the second hour students will present on key themes of the ethnography selected from a list of possible themes. Six minutes will be allocated to each team for the presentation. This will involve working in teams of three or four from the same tutorial group to trace an issue or theme through the ethnography. Within your team all should contribute to preparation of the material but it is not necessary for all to speak. You may use a powerpoint for your presentation, although it is not essential. All members of the team will be assigned the same grade for the presentation, unless it is very clear that one of the team has not made any contribution to the team.
Assessment Task 3
Learning Outcomes: 2,3,6
The ‘concept essay’ (2000 words 30%) will focus on themes addressed in the first term (weeks 1-6). It is expected that you use resources beyond the tutorial readings by searching a wider literature, including at least six references to that literature. The essay is due for submission before midnight on Sunday April 16.
Assessment Task 4
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3,4,5,6
Comparative ethnographies essay
The ‘comparative ethnographies essay’ (2500 words 35%)) will be based on a comparison of at least two of the ethnographies we have studied during the second term (weeks 8-12), but you are encouraged to search more widely for material that would support your analysis and argument. This essay is due at midnight on June 11.
Assessment Task 5
Learning Outcomes: 4
The forum site is found on your class Wattle page. Each week I shall post a new file with some opening comments and you are asked to respond to and reflect on the content of lecture and tutorial and reading for that week in any relevant way. The purpose of this forum is to give you an opportunity to consolidate on what has been covered for the week and to give you time to do that this post will be due on the following Friday. Please note that any posts after that date will be disregarded in terms of grading, because the point of this is to bring together the reflections across the group. This forum post will allow students on-line and campus to share in a common discussion on the week’s content. Feel free to comment on and add to others’ posts in a positive manner.
Campus students need to add a forum comment on at least five weeks (10%)
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Dr Patrick Guinness