• Class Number 6518
  • Term Code 3270
  • Class Info
  • Unit Value 6 units
  • Mode of Delivery Online or In Person
    • Dr Miranda Forsyth
    • Dr Miranda Forsyth
  • Class Dates
  • Class Start Date 19/09/2022
  • Class End Date 18/11/2022
  • Census Date 07/10/2022
  • Last Date to Enrol 30/09/2022
SELT Survey Results

This course introduces students to the main concepts and debates in restorative justice in an evidence-informed way.  It explores the multitude of ways restorative justice can and is being used to respond to a variety of societal challenges.  This includes the juvenile and adult criminal justice context, as well as areas as diverse as environmental protection, sexual abuse and health. We will also examine how restorative justice is being used within institutions to respond to concerns about harassment, bullying and sexual abuse.  The course will also introduce students to relevant methodological tools for assessing the impact of restorative justice based approaches.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

  1. Demonstrate a working knowledge of key terms, concepts and ideas in the area of restorative justice;
  2. Analyse, debate and critically evaluate different restorative justice approaches and their value in a range of contexts (justice, institutional reform, environmental disasters etc;
  3. Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of adopting an evidence-based approach to the study of restorative justice and be familiar with the methodological tools necessary to develop an evidence base in this area
  4. Apply a restorative justice approach to a range of real life situations

Visit leading restorative justice websites to view some videos of different forms of restorative practices:

International Institute for Restorative Practices:

http://restorativejustice.org/rj-library/#sthash.nR0km3tk.dpbs (http://restorativejustice.org/rjlibrary/#


Prison Fellowship International:



Restorative Practices Australia:

http://www.restorativepractices.org.au/ (http://www.restorativepractices.org.au/)

Or simply do an internet search for: ‘Restorative Justice Videos’ to find your areas of practice of special interest

Staff Feedback

Students will be given feedback in the following forms in this course:
  • Written comments
  • Verbal comments
  • Feedback to the whole class, to groups, to individuals, focus groups

Student Feedback

ANU is committed to the demonstration of educational excellence and regularly seeks feedback from students. Students are encouraged to offer feedback directly to their Course Convener or through their College and Course representatives (if applicable). The feedback given in these surveys is anonymous and provides the Colleges, University Education Committee and Academic Board with opportunities to recognise excellent teaching, and opportunities for improvement. The Surveys and Evaluation website provides more information on student surveys at ANU and reports on the feedback provided on ANU courses.

Class Schedule

Week/Session Summary of Activities Assessment
1 Why restorative justice? Restorative justice is an approached to justice based on healing and building and strengthening relationships. In this first session we get to know each other and the outline of the course and understand what is required from the assessment and from each other. We will also cover: · Critiques of existing justice systems in the global North and the emergence of alternative approaches to justice · Role of the community in existing justice systems · Role of the victim in existing justice systems · Role of emotion in existing criminal justice system · History of restorative justice as a practice · Brief contrast of restorative and retributive paradigms · Why would any victim want to meet the person who harmed them? Readings · John Braithwaite, Ch 1, Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation (2002) Oxford University Press http://johnbraithwaite.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Restorative-Justice-and-Responsive-regulation-book.pdf · Howard Zehr (2015), The Little Book of Restorative Justice (revised and updated 2015) · Christopher Marshall, (2014). Restoring What? The practice, promise and perils of restorative justice in New Zealand. Policy Quarterly, vol. 10, No. 2
2 Theoretical underpinnings to restorative justice Restorative justice can be linked with a number of theoretical underpinnings that support its emergence as a practice. Here we will look at some of the main theories that inform and support it, in addition to identifying some of the main principles and values. We will also consider the role of apology in our society today and the various ways it is enabled or constrained. · Theoretical underpinnings of restorative justice: conflicts as property; reintegrative shaming; procedural justice; relational theory; responsive regulation · Minimalist and maximalist views of restorative justice · Key restorative principles and values – and pre-conditions/safeguards · The role of apology in restorative justice and more broadly Readings · John Braithwaite, Ch 4, Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation (2002) Oxford University Press http://johnbraithwaite.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Restorative-Justice-and-Responsive-regulation-book.pdf · Nils Christie (1977). Conflicts as property. British Journal of Criminology 17(1): 1–15 · Meredith Rossner (2008) Healing Victims and Offenders and Reducing Crime: A Critical Assessment of Restorative Justice Practice and Theory, Sociology Compass 2/6: 1734–1749 · Jennifer J. Llewellyn, 'Transforming restorative justice', (2021) The International Journal of Restorative Justice 374-395 · https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/jun/12/the-apology-eve-ensler-review · https://amp.smh.com.au/culture/movies/there-s-only-one-way-will-smith-can-make-amends-give-the-award-back-20220329-p5a90m.html
3 What are some of the common practices associated with restorative justice? Many people associate restorative justice with certain distinct processes. We will look at the main forms of restorative justice from a processual perspective, as well as some helpful practices and conceptualisations that have been developed to help restorative justice be utilised in institutions and in everyday life. We will watch an example of the use of a restorative circle for sentencing in a mock trial of ecocide. In this session we will also do a role play of a restorative justice conference. · Victim Offender Mediation, restorative justice conferencing, family group conferencing, sentencing circles; restorative circles and dialogue; yarning circles · How is restorative justice different to mediation and arbitration? Readings · Joan Pennell and Gale Burford, Family group Decision Making: protecting Children and Women, Child Welfare (2000) 79(2) pp131 –157 · Pointer, L. (2019) Restorative practices in residence halls at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, Conflict resolution Quarterly, 36: 263-271 · Example of RJ conference video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acRV29SSCaE&t=158s
4 What do we know about how restorative justice ‘works’? Restorative justice is often declared to be transformative, but how can we explain how that happens? Sometimes people talk about seeking to understand what happens inside the “black box” of a restorative justice conference. Understanding this requires engaging with emotions and emotional change, rituals and more. We will also watch a documentary in this session, The Worst Thing, and hold a reflection circle afterwards. The topics we cover are: · Emotional transitions and ritual in restorative justice · Nathanson’s Compass of shame and the Social Discipline Window · The temporality of restorative justice · Memory consolidation and telling stories · Redemption narratives · The concept of Readiness Readings (Choose 3 of these) · Meredith Rossner, Restorative justice, anger, and the transformative energy of forgiveness, The International Journal of Restorative Justice 2019 vol. 2(3) pp. 368-388 doi: 10.5553/IJRJ.000005 · Shadd Maruna, and Derek Ramsden, Derek (2004), Living to Tell the Tale: Redemption Narratives, Shame Management, and Offender Rehabilitation. · Crawford, A (2015) Temporality in restorative justice: On time, timing and time-consciousness. Theoretical Criminology, 19 (4). pp. 470-490. · Bolitho J. Inside the restorative justice black box: The role of memory reconsolidation in transforming the emotional impact of violent crime on victims. International Review of Victimology. 2017;23(3):233-255. doi:10.1177/0269758017714549 · Masahiro Suzuki PhD, 'From ‘what works’ to ‘how it works’ in research on restorative justice conferencing: the concept of readiness', (2020) The International Journal of Restorative Justice 356-373
5 Restorative justice and the criminal justice part 1 Restorative justice plays a wide range of roles in the criminal justice system, being potentially present in many different places in the system. We will examine these over the next two sessions, focusing on particular areas where its potential and use is highest. We will take as an example the place of restorative justice in the ACT’s criminal justice system. We will watch some short clips of a restorative justice conference held in Australia following a fatal shooting. · The places we can find restorative justice in the criminal justice system from policing to sentencing to prisons · Example of the role of RJ in the ACT · Critiques about deterrence and proportionality in relation to restorative justice and other common critiques (softness, chequebook justice etc) Readings · Ian D. Marder (2020): Institutionalising restorative justice in the police: key findings from a study of two English police forces, Contemporary Justice Review, DOI 10.1080/10282580.2020.1755847 Dünkel, · Katounas, Jackie and Fred McElrea (2001). Restorative justice in prisons - a New Zealand experience . Wellington: International Corrections and Prisons Association. · Kathleen Daly (2012) The Punishment Debate in Restorative Justice, in Jonathan Simon and Richard Sparks (eds), The Handbook of Punishment and Society · Crimes (Restorative Justice) Act 2004 - ACT
6 Restorative justice and the criminal justice system Part 2 In this session we continue to investigate the role of restorative justice in the criminal justice system, focusing on a range of different areas in which it has been used. We will also examine some of the common critiques that are made of restorative justice, and some of the other alternative approaches that have been used in the criminal justice context. We will do a role play in this session. · Corporate crime · Juvenile justice · Indigenous justice · Coronial inquiries · Family and sexual violence · Common critiques of restorative justice · Other alternative justice pathways: Transformative, therapeutic, comprehensive justice, justice reinvestment Readings · Braithwaite J. Regulatory Mix, Collective Efficacy, and Crimes of the Powerful. Journal of White Collar and Corporate Crime. 2020;1(1):62-71 · Frieder, Horsfield, Philip and Andrea Parosanu (2015). Research and Selection of the Most Effective Juvenile Restorative Justice Practices in Europe: Snapshots from 28 EU Member States . Brussels: International Juvenile Justice Observatory · Daly et al (2021), Cost Benefit Analysis of Galambany Court, https://justice.act.gov.au/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-affairs/galambany-circle-sentencing-court · Leigh Goodmark, Should Domestic Violence be Decriminalized? (2017) Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, pp53-113
7 How is the effectiveness of restorative justice measured? Determining whether restorative justice works requires understanding what it seeks to achieve and whether and how these factors can be measured. We will look at some of the ways in which scholars and policy makers have sought to answer the question of how effective restorative justice is, whilst also being alive to the difficulties of measuring it. In this session we will also focus on another key concept in restorative justice – perspective taking, and discuss some techniques for achieving this, such as deep listening. · Understanding the evidence base about restorative justice · How do we know what we know? What constitutes ‘evidence’, How do we interpret the reliability and generalisability of statistics/research/data? · What do we measure? Recidivism? Increased social capital? Other factors? · Cost benefit analyses · Control trials and meta analyses Readings · Braithwaite (2016) Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation: The question of evidence (http://johnbraithwaite.com/wpcontent/ uploads/2016/11/figures-JBdotcom-SSRN_2016_BraithwaiteJrevised- 51.pdf). RegNet Working Paper No. 51, School of Regulation and Global Governance (RegNet). · Wilson, D., Olaghere, A and Kimbrell, C., Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Principles in Juvenile Justice: A Meta Analysis (2017) National Criminal Justice Reference Service · Jiska Jonas-van Dijk, Sven Zebel, Jacques Claessen, and Hans Nelen, Victim–Offender Mediation and Reduced Reoffending: Gauging the Self-Selection Bias, Crime & Delinquency 2020, Vol. 66(6-7) 949– 972
8 Restorative justice in other regulatory spheres Whilst restorative justice is best known in the criminal justice context, it has spread to many different regulatory domains. We will look at a number of these, certainly environmental regulation, and also at the phenomenon of restorative cities that seek to infuse an entire city with a restorative ethos and approach. We will work together to choose a regulatory domain and consider how to “turn up the restorative dial” in the way in which it currently functions. · Restorative justice in schools, workplaces, universities, hospitals, mental health, environmental regulation, restorative enquiries, community responses to sexual violence, and restorative cities · Restorative justice continuum · Asking restorative questions · Finding restorative spaces · Restorative questions and motivational interviewing Readings Choose three of the following: · ACT Law Reform Advisory Council: ACT on the Road to become a Restorative City: Evidence Paper 30 September 2018 – available at https://justice.act.gov.au/justice-programs-and-initiatives/canberra-restorative-city · https://www.canberra.edu.au/research/collaborations/ciri/uc-ciri-projects/restorative-health · Restorative Inquiry: The Nova Scotia Home for Colored Children · Braithwaite, V. & Ahmed, E. (2015) The Personal Management of Shame and Pride in Workplace Bullying, RegNet Research Paper No. 2015/96, RegNet Research Paper Series Vol. 3, No. 10, Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet). · Shin, H., Braithwaite V. & Ahmed, E. (2016) Cyber- and face-to-face bullying: who crosses over? Social Psychology of Education, 19(3), 537-567. · Mary P. Koss, Jay K. Wilgus, Kaaren M.Williamsen, Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice Approaches to Enhance Compliance With Title IX Guidance, Trauma, Violence, & Abuse Vol 15, Issue 3, pp. 242 -257 · Llewellyn, J.J. (2019). Responding restoratively to student misconduct and professional regulation – the case of Dalhousie dentistry. In G. Burford, J. Braithwaite & V. Braithwaite (eds.), Restorative and responsive human services (pp. 127-142). London: Routledge. · Forsyth, M., Cleland, D., Tepper, F., Hollingworth, D., Soares, M., Nairn, A., and Wilkinson, C., (2021).’A future agenda for Environmental Restorative Justice?’ International Journal of Restorative Justice Vol 4(1), pp17-40. Doi:10.5553/TIJRJ.000063 · https://aeon.co/essays/the-psychologist-carl-rogers-and-the-art-of-active-listening?utm_source=Aeon+Newsletter&utm_medium=email&&utm_campaign=launchnlbanner
9 Restorative justice within the international legal framework and in our region Restorative justice has spread to every corner of the globe as a modern phenomena, and many forms of it always existed in the more relational justice systems that characterise many parts of the global South and indigenous communities. After an overview of what the international legal framework provides we will examine restorative justice in Asia and the Pacific. In this session we also discuss a number of approaches to conceptualising power that are helpful in engaging in discussions about restorative justice and power, and the ways in which restorative justice is being used across the globe to engage with systemic injustice. · The International framework for restorative justice and international guidelines · Restorative justice across Asia · Restorative justice in the Pacific · Why is understanding power necessary for understanding RJ? · What conceptions of power are helpful? · Addressing power imbalances in restorative justice conferences, approaches and techniques · Restorative justice, race, gender and class Readings Choose three of the following: · United Nations Economic and Social Council (2002). Resolution 2002/12 on the Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice Programmes in Criminal Matters · Sinclair Dinnen, Restorative justice in the Pacific Islands: An introduction, in Sinclair Dinnen, Anita Jowitt and Tess Newton (eds), A Kind of Mending: Restorative Justice in the Pacific Islands ANU press (2010) https://press.anu.edu.au/publications/kind-mending (https://press.anu.edu.au/publications/kind-mending) · Dennis Wong, ‘Harmony Comes First: Challenges facing the Development of Restorative Justice in Asia’ (2014) 2(1) Restorative Justice: An international Journal · Braithwaite and Y. Zhang (2017)‘Persia to China: the Silk Road of Restorative Justice I (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11417-017- 9244-y) Asian Journal of Criminology 12(1):23-38. · Harry Blagg (2017). Doing restorative justice ‘otherwise’: Decolonising practices in the global south. In Ivo Aertsen & Brunilda Pali (eds.), Critical restorative justice (pp. 61-78). Hart Publishing. · Dorothy Roberts, ‘Black Mothers, Prison, and Foster Care: Rethinking Restorative Justice’ in Burford, Braithwaite and Braithwaite, Restorative and Responsive Human Services (2019) (Routledge) · Kathleen Daly and Julie Stubbs, Feminist Engagement with Restorative Justice (2006) 10 (1) Theoretical Criminology 9-28 · Colorizing Restorative Justice Voicing Our Realities Edited by Edward C. Valandra, Wa?bli Wap?áha Hokšíla, intro and ch1
10 Restorative justice in relation to societal challenges of the 21st century This session looks at specific application of restorative justice to contemporary challenges. We will look at the scale and the type of the challenge or problem, society’s typical response to it and the alternative restorative response that has been or could be designed, its potential and limitations. · Extreme violence and terrorism · The war in Ukraine · Sexual Violence · Other topics chosen by class Readings · Lode Walgrave (2015). Domestic terrorism: a challenge for restorative justice. Restorative Justice: An International Journal 3(2): 282-290 · Margarita Zernova (2017). Restorative justice in the Basque peace process: some experiments and their lessons. Contemporary Justice Review 20(3): 363-391. · Brunilda Pali (2018). Restorative justice and terrorism: resisting evil with non-evil? In Security Praxis Collective Blog. https://securitypraxis.eu/restorative-justice-and-terrorism/ · John Braithwaite, 'Putin’s war: restorative reflections', (2022) The International Journal of Restorative Justice 1-11 https://www.elevenjournals.com/tijdschrift/TIJRJ/2022/Online%20First/TIJRJ-D-22-00020 ·

Assessment Summary

Assessment task Value Due Date Return of assessment Learning Outcomes
In-class participation for the entire course (10 classes) (5%) and discussion of a social issue/problem that you would like to consider restorative justice in relation to (5%) 10 % 27/10/2022 07/11/2022 1,2,3
Development of a role play exercise 20 % 07/10/2022 14/10/2021 1,4
Research and writing plan and outline for major essay (1000 words) 20 % 21/10/2022 28/10/2021 1,2,3
Major essay (4000 words) 50 % 15/11/2022 25/11/2021 1,2,3

* If the Due Date and Return of Assessment date are blank, see the Assessment Tab for specific Assessment Task details


ANU has educational policies, procedures and guidelines, which are designed to ensure that staff and students are aware of the University’s academic standards, and implement them. Students are expected to have read the Academic Misconduct Rule before the commencement of their course. Other key policies and guidelines include:

Assessment Requirements

The ANU is using Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website Students may choose not to submit assessment items through Turnitin. In this instance you will be required to submit, alongside the assessment item itself, hard copies of all references included in the assessment item.

Moderation of Assessment

Marks that are allocated during Semester are to be considered provisional until formalised by the College examiners meeting at the end of each Semester. If appropriate, some moderation of marks might be applied prior to final results being released.

Assessment Task 1

Value: 10 %
Due Date: 27/10/2022
Return of Assessment: 07/11/2022
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

In-class participation for the entire course (10 classes) (5%) and discussion of a social issue/problem that you would like to consider restorative justice in relation to (5%)

At the start of the course you will nominate a class in which you will present for 5 minutes on the potential application of restorative justice to a social issue, injustice or problem that you are interested in. You are encouraged either to choose a relatively new/emerging issue (fake news, Black Lives matter, #Metoo etc) or else one that you have personally encountered or are particularly interested in. You should discuss why you chose the topic and how a restorative approach to the topic differs from how it is currently dealt with/ could be dealt with.

Assessment Task 2

Value: 20 %
Due Date: 07/10/2022
Return of Assessment: 14/10/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,4

Development of a role play exercise

Students will be required to design a role play exercise involving a restorative approach to a problem of their choice. This will involve creating a scenario and the characteristics of the characters who will be involved in the restorative process as well as providing instructions for the facilitator. The aim is for the role play to be used by a group of students learning about restorative justice (10%). You must also provide a separate written explanation (10%) about why you chose the scenario, and created the characters and facilitators instructions in the way you did what elements of a restorative approach it is intended to teach participants. You should explicitly draw on some of the theoretical foundations of restorative justice. The length of this exercise is 1,000 words in total.

Assessment Task 3

Value: 20 %
Due Date: 21/10/2022
Return of Assessment: 28/10/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

Research and writing plan and outline for major essay (1000 words)

Submit a 1000 word essay outline for the major essay (word count does not include references/ bibliography).

The outline should set out the topic chosen (this should be discussed and approved by the course convener by the third teaching week of the course at the latest), the structure for your major essay, your main arguments or claims and the sources, examples and evidence you will draw upon (i.e. a provisional bibliography for the final paper). The 1000 word essay should be mostly written in paragraphs.

Assessment Task 4

Value: 50 %
Due Date: 15/11/2022
Return of Assessment: 25/11/2021
Learning Outcomes: 1,2,3

Major essay (4000 words)

Submit a 4000 word essay on a particular aspect of restorative justice approved by the course convener in discussion with the student. The essay must include:

  • critical engagement with the concept of restorative justice and the relevant literature; and
  • clear application of theory of restorative justice to the topic chosen; and
  • discussion of the merits and limitations of restorative justice in the context of the topic; and
  • relevant engagement with the issue of the evidence base drawn upon or required to make arguments in relation to the topic

Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a core part of our culture as a community of scholars. At its heart, academic integrity is about behaving ethically. This means that all members of the community commit to honest and responsible scholarly practice and to upholding these values with respect and fairness. The Australian National University commits to embedding the values of academic integrity in our teaching and learning. We ensure that all members of our community understand how to engage in academic work in ways that are consistent with, and actively support academic integrity. The ANU expects staff and students to uphold high standards of academic integrity and act ethically and honestly, to ensure the quality and value of the qualification that you will graduate with. The University has policies and procedures in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct. Visit the following Academic honesty & plagiarism website for more information about academic integrity and what the ANU considers academic misconduct. The ANU offers a number of services to assist students with their assignments, examinations, and other learning activities. The Academic Skills and Learning Centre offers a number of workshops and seminars that you may find useful for your studies.

Online Submission

The ANU uses Turnitin to enhance student citation and referencing techniques, and to assess assignment submissions as a component of the University's approach to managing Academic Integrity. While the use of Turnitin is not mandatory, the ANU highly recommends Turnitin is used by both teaching staff and students. For additional information regarding Turnitin please visit the ANU Online website.

Hardcopy Submission

For some forms of assessment (hand written assignments, art works, laboratory notes, etc.) hard copy submission is appropriate when approved by the Associate Dean (Education). Hard copy submissions must utilise the Assignment Cover Sheet. Please keep a copy of tasks completed for your records.

Late Submission

No submission of assessment tasks without an extension after the due date will be permitted. If an assessment task is not submitted by the due date, a mark of 0 will be awarded.

Referencing Requirements

Accepted academic practice for referencing sources that you use in presentations can be found via the links on the Wattle site, under the file named “ANU and College Policies, Program Information, Student Support Services and Assessment”. Alternatively, you can seek help through the Students Learning Development website.

Extensions and Penalties

Extensions and late submission of assessment pieces are covered by the Student Assessment (Coursework) Policy and Procedure The Course Convener may grant extensions for assessment pieces that are not examinations or take-home examinations. If you need an extension, you must request an extension in writing on or before the due date. If you have documented and appropriate medical evidence that demonstrates you were not able to request an extension on or before the due date, you may be able to request it after the due date.

Privacy Notice

The ANU has made a number of third party, online, databases available for students to use. Use of each online database is conditional on student end users first agreeing to the database licensor’s terms of service and/or privacy policy. Students should read these carefully. In some cases student end users will be required to register an account with the database licensor and submit personal information, including their: first name; last name; ANU email address; and other information. In cases where student end users are asked to submit ‘content’ to a database, such as an assignment or short answers, the database licensor may only use the student’s ‘content’ in accordance with the terms of service — including any (copyright) licence the student grants to the database licensor. Any personal information or content a student submits may be stored by the licensor, potentially offshore, and will be used to process the database service in accordance with the licensors terms of service and/or privacy policy. If any student chooses not to agree to the database licensor’s terms of service or privacy policy, the student will not be able to access and use the database. In these circumstances students should contact their lecturer to enquire about alternative arrangements that are available.

Distribution of grades policy

Academic Quality Assurance Committee monitors the performance of students, including attrition, further study and employment rates and grade distribution, and College reports on quality assurance processes for assessment activities, including alignment with national and international disciplinary and interdisciplinary standards, as well as qualification type learning outcomes. Since first semester 1994, ANU uses a grading scale for all courses. This grading scale is used by all academic areas of the University.

Support for students

The University offers students support through several different services. You may contact the services listed below directly or seek advice from your Course Convener, Student Administrators, or your College and Course representatives (if applicable).
Dr Miranda Forsyth

Research Interests

Restorative justice; Legal pluralism; Law and society; Legal anthropology; Crime and violence; Government and politics of Asia and the Pacific; Intellectual property law.

Dr Miranda Forsyth

By Appointment
Dr Miranda Forsyth
6125 1505

Research Interests

Dr Miranda Forsyth

By Appointment

Responsible Officer: Registrar, Student Administration / Page Contact: Website Administrator / Frequently Asked Questions